Chapter 2 (Papalia) - Chapter 2 Child's World How We...

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Chapter 2 Child's World: How We Discover It Basic Theoretical Issues o Theory § coherent set of logically related concepts § organize, explain, and predict data § Generates hypotheses possible explanations for phenomena used to predict the outcome of research o Issue 1: Are Children Active or Passive in Their Development? § Mechanistic model: passive HD as a series of passive, predictable responses to stimuli. John Locke o A young child is a clean slate ( tabula rasa ) on which society "writes" Passivity o People are like machines that react to environmental input o Prediction based on the internal and external forces § Organistic model: active HD as internally initiated by an active organism, occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages Rousseau o Children are born "noble savages" who develop according to their own positive natural tendencies unless corrupted by society People initiate events, not just react The impetus for change is internal Environmental influences o Do not cause development o can speed or slow development o Issue 2: Is Development Continuous or does It Occur in Stages? § Mechanistic theorists Continuous Quantitative § Organistic theorists Distinct stages Qualitative o A Shifting Balance § Early theorists favored the organistic approach § Today, biology and evolutionary bases of behavior is emphasized § Evolutionary Psychology Application of Darwinian principles to individual behavior Developmental systems approach
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Human development is an outcome of a dynamic process of bidirectional interaction between a person and the environment Bidirectional = People change their world as it changes them § Combined view Children's internal drives and needs Social creatures and cannot develop optimally in isolation § How theory and Research Work Together Theoretical Perspectives o Perspective 1: Psychoanalytic § View of human development as being shaped by unconscious forces. § Focus on unconscious emotions and drives o Sigmund Freud: Psychosexual Development § Construction of Personality Id Seeks immediate gratification pleasure principle Ego Balance btw id and superego reality principle Superego conscience § Stages Oral Anal Phallic o Oedipus complex in boys § Sexual desire for their mothers § Aggressive urges toward their fathers o Penis envy § The repressed wish to possess a penis and the power it stands for Latency Genital Fixation can occur during any stage o Erikson § Psychosocial development Development of the self (ego) influenced by society and the culture 8 stages across the life Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy (1 year) hope Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt Infancy (1-3 years) will Initiative vs. Guilt Early childhood purpose Industry vs. Inferiority Middle and late childhood skill Identity vs. Identity Confusion Adolescence fidelity Intimacy vs. Isolation
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Chapter 2 (Papalia) - Chapter 2 Child's World How We...

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