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Chapter 7 (Papalia) - Chapter 7 Cognitive Development...

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Chapter 7: Cognitive Development during the First Three Years I. Studying Cognitive Development: Six Approaches o Behaviorist approach § Concerned with basic mechanics of learning o Psychometric approach § seeks to measure the quantity of intelligence a person possesses o Piagetian approach § describes qualitative stages in cognitive functioning o Information processing approach § observance and analysis of the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information o Cognitive neuroscience § links between neural processes and cognitive abilities o Social-contextual § focus on environmental influences, particularly parents and other caregivers II. Behaviorist Approach o Classical and Operant Conditioning § Classical conditioning - Based on associating a stimulus that doesn’t ordinarily elicit a particular response with a stimulus that does elicit the response § Operant conditioning - Based on reinforcement and punishment o Infant memory § Infantile amnesia - Inability to remember early events o Testing infants and toddlers § Measuring quantitative differences § Goal-oriented and adaptive behavior - Directed at adjusting to the circumstances and conditions of life § intelligent behavior Behavior that is goal oriented and adaptive to circumstances and conditions of life. § Intelligent Quotient (IQ) tests - Testing infants and toddlers - Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - Mental and motor development o Assessing the home § Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) - Instrument to measure the influence of the home environment on children's cognitive growth - Parental responsiveness (praise) - Number of books in home - Passive-genotype-environment correlation o Socioeconomic status, parenting practices and IQ o Early intervention
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§ Systematic process of providing services to help families meet young children's developmental needs § Reduces the gap for children with limited learning opportunities and low parental expectations § Individuals with Disabilities Education Act § Project CARE III. Piagetian Approach A.
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