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Chapter 8 (Papalia) - Chapter8: I Foundations of...

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Chapter 8: Psychosocial Development during the First Three Years I. Foundations of Psychosocial Development A. Emotions § Definition - Subjective reactions to experience - associated with physiological and behavioral changes § first signs of emotion - crying - used communicate hunger, anger, pain, frustration - smiling and laughing § When do emotions appear? - Index of infants’ emotions - Facial expressions - Motor activity - Body language - Physiological changes § Basic Emotions - Contentment, interest, and distress at birth - 6 months of age brings more complex emotions B. Emotions involving the self § self-conscious emotions - embarrassment, empathy, and envy - depend on self-awareness - Realization that one's existence and functioning are separate from those of other people and things § self-evaluative emotions - such as pride, shame, and guilt - depend on both self-awareness and knowledge of socially accepted standards of behavior § empathy - Ability to put oneself in another person's place and feel what the other person feels - social cognition - Ability to understand that other people have mental states and to gauge their feelings and intentions - egocentrism - inability to consider another person's point of view - a characteristic of young children's thought C. Brain Growth and Emotional development § Brain development after birth is connected with changes in emotional life § Four major shifts in brain organization D. Temperament patterns § Characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations § Biologically based § Relatively consistent and enduring with an emotional basis § easy children - happy temperament
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- regular biological rhythms - a readiness to accept new experiences § difficult children - irritable temperament -
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