Chapter 2 (Santrock) - Chapter 2: Puberty, Health, and...

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Chapter 2: Puberty, Health, and Biological Foundations. I. PUBERTY A. Determinants of Puberty A period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place primarily in early adolescence Heredity Onset of puberty is programmed into the genes Hormones Powerful chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands and carried through the body by the bloodstream. androgens The main class of male sex hormones. o Testosterone I. Development of external genitals II. Increase in weight III. Voice changes IV. Sexual desires and activities estrogens The main class of female sex hormones o Estradiol I. Breast development II. Uterine development III. Skeletal changes The Endocrine System Growth Hormone o Thyroid gland interacts with the pituitary gland to influence growth Adrenarche and Gonadarche o adrenarche I. hormonal changes in the adrenal glands II. 6-9 in girls; 7-11 in boys III. the beginning of puberty o gonadarche § primary sexual characteristics ovaries in females, testes in males § secondary sexual characteristics pubic hair, breast, and genital development § menarche A girl's first menstrual period.
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§ spermarche A boy's first ejaculation of semen Negative feedback system of sex hormones o Like thermostat and furnace Girls Boys FSH Stimulates follicle development Sperm production LH Regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development Testosterone production Weight, Body Fat, and Leptin Higher weight, earlier pubertal development Minimum 17% body fat Growth in leptin concentration Weight at Birth and Infancy Earlier puberty o Low birth weight girls o Rapid weight gain in infancy Low birth weight boys – smaller testicular volume Sociocultural and Environmental Factors Earlier pubertal onset in developed countries and large urban areas Earlier puberty o Absent fathers o Low socioeconomic status o Family conflict o Child maltreatment B. Growth Spurt Weight gain follows roughly the same timetable as height gain Girls 9- 11 ½ for girls 3.5-inch growth per year Hip width Rounder and softer face Boys 11-13 ½ for boys 4-inch growth per year shoulder width angular face
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C. Sexual Maturation Girls
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Chapter 2 (Santrock) - Chapter 2: Puberty, Health, and...

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