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Chapter 4 (Santrock) - Chapter 4 The Self Identity Emotions...

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Chapter 4: The Self, Identity, Emotions, and Personality I. THE SELF A. Self-Understanding § What Is Self-Understanding? o The individual's cognitive representation of the self o the substance and content of self-conceptions. o Self-understanding is a social-cognitive construction § Dimension of Adolescents’ and Emerging Adults’ Self- Understanding o Abstraction and Idealism o Differentiation o The Fluctuating Self o Contradictions within the Self o Real vs. Ideal, True vs. False Selves possible self - What individuals might become - what they would like to become - what they are afraid of becoming o Soc ial Comparison o Self-Consciousness o Self-Protection o The Unconscious Self o Not Quite Yet a Coherent, Integrated Self § Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood o More integrative self-understanding § Self-Understanding and Social Contexts o Varies across Relationships - Mother, father, close friend, romantic partner, peer Social roles - Student, athlete, employee Ethnic/cultural background Experiences B. Self-Esteem and Self-Concept § What Are Self-Esteem and Self-Concept? o self-esteem The global evaluative dimension of the self Also self-worth or self-image Importance of peer judgment Positive or negative Factors - Body image - Media
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- Peer pressure - Achievement - Expectations - Wealth - Parenting - Race/ethnicity - Sexual orientation - Popularity o self-concept Domain-specific evaluations of the self Academics, athletics, physical appearance, etc. § Self-Esteem: Perception and Reality o Perceptions do not always match reality § Does Self-Esteem Change During Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood? o Decrease in self-esteem during life transitions o Self-esteem fluctuates across the life span o Gender gap: women have lower self-esteem o Cohort effect Todays’ adolescents Encouragement of self-esteem in schools Unmerited praise Inflated self-esteem Difficulty handling competition and criticism § Is Self-Esteem Linked to Success in School and Initiative?
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