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Chapter 5 (Santrock) - Chapter 5 Gender I BIOLOGICAL SOCIAL...

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Chapter 5: Gender I. BIOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, AND COGNITIVE INFLUENCES ON GENDER Gender o The characteristics of people as males and females. o Psychological and sociocultural dimensions Gender role o A set of expectations that prescribes how females and males should think, act, and feel. A. Biological Influences on Gender § Pubertal Change and Sexuality Incorporation of sexuality into gender attitudes and behaviors § Freud and Erikson—Anatomy Is Destiny Freud o Gender and sexual behavior are unlearned and instinctual Erikson o Psychological differences stem from anatomical differences § Evolutionary Psychology and Gender B. Social Influences on Gender § Social Role Theory gender differences from the contrasting roles of females and males females having less power and status and control § Parental Influences Mothers’ socialization strategies Socializing daughters to be more obedient and responsible More restrictions on daughters’ autonomy Fathers’ socialization strategies Fathers pay more attention to sons Promotion of intellectual development § Social Cognitive-Theory of Gender gender development influenced by observation and imitation by rewards and punishments gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior § Siblings
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Younger siblings become like their older siblings § Peers Peer approval § Schools and Teachers Biases against boys Compliance Female teachers More learning problems More criticism
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