Chapter01-Structure and Bonding

Chapter01-Structure and Bonding - 1. Structure and Bonding...

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1. Structure and Bonding Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 6 th edition, Chapter 1 ©2003 Ronald Kluger Department of Chemistry University of Toronto
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 1 2 Organic Chemistry “Organic” – until mid 1800’s referred to compounds from living sources (mineral sources were “inorganic”) Wöhler in 1828 showed that urea, an organic compound, could be made from a minerals Today, organic compounds are those based on carbon structures and organic chemistry studies their structures and reactions Includes biological molecules, drugs, solvents, dyes Does not include metal salts and materials (inorganic) Does not include materials of large repeating molecules without sequences (polymers)
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 1 3 1.1 Atomic Structure Structure of an atom Positively charged nucleus (very dense, protons and neutrons) and smal (10 -15 m) Negatively charged electrons are in a cloud (10 -10 m) around nucleus Diameter is about 2 × 10 -10 m (200 picometers (pm)) [the unit angstrom (Å) is 10 -10 m = 100 pm]
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 1 4 Atomic Number and Atomic Mass The atomic number ( Z ) is the number of protons in the atom's nucleus The mass number ( A ) is the number of protons plus neutrons All the atoms of a given element have the same atomic number Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers The atomic mass ( atomic weight ) of an element is the weighted average mass in atomic mass units (amu) of an element’s naturally occurring isotopes
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 1 5 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals Quantum mechanics : describes electron energies and locations by a wave equation Wave function solution of wave equation Each Wave function is an orbital ,a A plot of r 2 describes where electron most likely to be Electron cloud has no specific boundary so we show most probable area
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 1 6 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals for Electrons Four different kinds of orbitals for electrons based on those derived for a hydrogen atom Denoted s , p , d , and f s and p orbitals most important in organic chemistry s orbitals: spherical, nucleus at center p orbitals: dumbbell-shaped, nucleus at middle
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 1 7 Orbitals and Shells Orbitals are grouped in shells of increasing size and energy Different shells contain different numbers and kinds of orbitals Each orbital can be occupied by two electrons First shell contains one s orbital, denoted 1 s , holds only two electrons Second shell contains one s orbital (2 s ) and three p orbitals (2 p ), eight electrons Third shell contains an s orbital (3 s ), three p orbitals (3 p ), and five d orbitals (3 d ), 18 electrons
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2010 for the course CHE 321 taught by Professor Fowler/sampson during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Chapter01-Structure and Bonding - 1. Structure and Bonding...

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