Chapter03- Organic Compounds- Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

Chapter03- Organic Compounds- Alkanes and Cycloalkanes - 3....

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3. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 6 th edition, Chapter 3 ©2003 Ronald Kluger Department of Chemistry University of Toronto
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 3 2 Families of Organic Compounds Organic compounds can be grouped into families by their common structural features We shall survey the nature of the compounds in a tour of the families in this course This chapter deals with alkanes , compounds that contain only carbons and hydrogens, all connected exclusively by single bonds
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 3 3 3.1 Functional Groups Functional group - collection of atoms at a site within a molecule with a common bonding pattern The group reacts in a typical way, generally independent of the rest of the molecule For example, the double bonds in simple and complex alkenes react with bromine in the same way (See Figure 3.1)
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 3 4 Survey of Functional Groups Table 3.1 lists a wide variety of functional groups that you should recognize As you learn about them in each chapter it will be easier to recognize them The functional groups affect the reactions, structure, and physical properties of every compound in which they occur
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 3 5 Types of Functional Groups: Multiple Carbon–Carbon Bonds Alkenes have a C-C double bond Alkynes have a C-C triple bond Arenes have special bonds that are represented as alternating single and double C-C bonds in a six- membered ring
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McMurry Organic Chemistry 6th edition Chapter 3 6 Functional Groups with Carbon Singly Bonded to an Electronegative Atom Alkyl halide: C bonded to halogen (C-X) Alcohol: C bonded O of a hydroxyl group (Ca OH) Ether: Two C’s bonded to the same O (Ca Oa C) Amine: C bonded to N (Ca N) Thiol: C bonded to SH group (Ca SH) S ulfide: Two C’s bonded to same S (C±SF C) Bonds are polar, with partial positive charge on C ( δ +) and partial negative charge ( δ- ) on electronegative atom
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Chapter03- Organic Compounds- Alkanes and Cycloalkanes - 3....

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