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bonecartilage - Bone and cartilage Danil Hammoudi.MD...

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Bone and cartilage Danil Hammoudi.MD Introduction and generality The framework of bones and cartilage that protects our internal organs and allows us to move is called the SKELETAL SYSTEM. Functions of the skeletal system include: 1. Bones provide a hard framework that supports the body. 2. Bones provide protection to internal organs. The cranium protects the brain, the vertebrae protect the spinal cord, the rib cage protects the thoracic cavity organs, and the hip bones protect pelvic cavity organs. 3. Skeletal muscle uses the bones as levers for movement . 4. Bone serves as a reservoir of minerals , especially calcium. 5. Red bone marrow manufactures blood cells and platelets . 6. Fat is stored in the yellow bone marrow as an energy reserve . The shape and structure of bones is governed by many factors, genetic, metabolic and mechanical. Genetic determination of primary shape can be demonstrated by organ culture of bone rudiments, which subsequently grow into recognisable bones, i.e. roughly the finished shape in all major respects. Fine tuning is by muscular action. The muscles are active in utero, although it is difficult to isolate their effect at this stage. After birth, however, and up to adolescence there is a correlation between activity and growth. this is seen in reverse if we look at people who are bedridden, or who have paralyses (such as poliomyelitis). Metabolic factors are also important: calcium, phosphorous, vitamins A,C and D and the secretions of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid adrenals and gonads are all involved. Dwarves and giants are controlled by aberrant hormones, but there is much variation in normal height. Absence of adequate supplies of vitamin D may lead to rickets, and absence of calcium in the diet to week bone liable to fracture. Skeletal system contains 4 types of tissue: cartilage osseous tissue bone marrow 1
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