brainlecture2 - The Brain Danil Hammoudi.MD

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1 The Brain Danil Hammoudi.MD Cell bodies in CNS: nuclei Cell bodies in PNS: ganglia Nerves : bundles of axons! Divisions of the Human Brain : 1 - Myelencephalon , which includes the medulla 2 - Metencephalon , which includes the pons and cerebellum 3 - Mesencephalon , which includes the midbrain (tectum and tegmentum) 4 - Diencephalon , which includes the thalamus and hypothalamus 5 - Telencephalon , which includes the cerebrum (cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, & medullary body) New Terms: Brain Division Telencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon Medulla Telencephalon –Cerebral Cortex –Limbic system –Basal Ganglia Pons: Cerebellum:
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2 Cerebral Cortex Allows for sensation, voluntary movement, self-awareness, communication, recognition, and more. Gray matter! 40% of brain mass, but only 2-3 mm thick. Each cerebral hemisphere is concerned with the sensory and motor functions of the opposite side (a.k.a. contralateral side) of the body. The standard areas of cortex (isocortex) is characterized as having six distinct layers. From outside inward: 1.Molecular layer 2.External granular layer 3.External pyramidal layer 4.Internal granular layer 5.Internal pyramidal layer 6.Multiform layer. I-Molecular layer or plexiform layer: Contains few cells and a rich nerve fiber plexus made up of axons and dendrites of cells in other laminae as well as cells in this lamina. II-External granular layer: Closely packed small neurons. III-External pyramidal layer: Composed mainly of pyramidal neurons and many granule cells and cells of Martinotti.* IV-Internal granular layer: Composed chiefly of stellate cells that are closely packed. V-Internal pyramidal or ganglionic layer: Consists of medium-sized and large pyramidal cel s intermingled with granule cells. VI-Multiform layer or layer of fusiform cells: Contains a variety of cel types. White matter: Contains incoming and outgoing nerve fibers. Structures of the Brain: Protection • What is the major protection for the brain? • There are also 3 connective tissue membranes called the meninges: • Cover and protect the CNS • Protect blood vessels • Contain cerebrospinal fluid • The 3 meninges from superficial to deep: • Dura mater • Arachnoid mater • Pia mater Dura Mater •Leathery, strong meninx composed of two fibrous connective tissue layers •The two layers separate in certain areas and form dural sinuses •Three dural septa extend inward and limit excessive movement of the brain •Falx cerebri – fold that dips into the longitudinal fissure •Falx cerebelli – runs along the vermis of the cerebellum •Tentorium cerebelli – horizontal dural fold extends into the transverse fissure Arachnoid Mater •The middle meninx, which forms a loose brain covering •It is separated from the dura mater by the subdural space •Beneath the arachnoid is a wide subarachnoid space filled with CSF and large blood vessels
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2010 for the course BIO 2402 taught by Professor Opara during the Spring '10 term at Lone Star College.

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brainlecture2 - The Brain Danil Hammoudi.MD

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