cardioobjective - The Cardiovascular System The Heart...

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The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Objectives Heart Anatomy 1. Describe the size, location, and orientation of the heart. 2. Identify structures of the pericardium. 3. Define the endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium. 4. Compare the function of the atria and the ventricles, and describe the difference between the function of the right and left ventricles. 5. Discuss the need for coronary circulation, and name the vessels that play a role in it. 6. Indicate the function and location of the atrioventricular valves and aortic and pulmonary valves. Properties of Cardiac Muscle Fibers 7. Describe the microscopic anatomy and control of cardiac muscle cells, and compare to skeletal muscle cells. 8. Name the energetic requirements of cardiac muscle and how these requirements are met. Heart Physiology 9. Describe the structures and activities of the intrinsic conduction system. 10. Draw a typical ECG. Label and define the three phases. 11. Discuss the cardiac cycle in terms of relative pressure in each set of chambers. 12. Explain the normal heart sounds and how the sounds relate to closure of specific valves and systole or diastole of the ventricles. 13. Define cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate. Calculate cardiac output and cardiac reserve. 14. List the factors that affect stroke volume of the heart. 15. Describe the effects of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system on the heart. Developmental Aspects of the Heart 16. Describe the events of development of the heart from two separate tubes to a fin-ished structure. 17. Explain age-related changes that occur in the heart. Discuss possible changes in heart function due to these changes. Suggested Lecture Outline I. Heart Anatomy (pp. 678–689; Figs. 18.1–18.10) A. Size, Location, and Orientation (p. 678; Fig. 18.1) 1. The heart is the size of a fist and weighs 250–300 grams. 2. The heart is found in mediastinum and two-thirds lies left of the midsternal line. 3. The base is directed toward the right shoulder and the apex points toward the left hip. B. Coverings of the Heart (p. 678; Fig. 18.2) 1. The heart is enclosed in a doubled-walled sac called the pericardium.
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