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resume - Resume of 206 anatomy Anatomy of cardiovascular...

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Resume of 206 anatomy Anatomy of cardiovascular system CVS is formed of • the heart is the pump • blood vessels which formed of arteries, veins, and capillaries. Heart Location • A person closed hand • Lies in the middle of the chest cavity • Psteriorly it lies against 5-8th thoracic vertebrae The cardiac wall is formed of 3 layers • Epicardium : is the outer layer • Myocardium : is a thick, muscular, contract automatically and it doesnot fatigue. • Enndocardium: is lining of the myocardial wall. Chambers of the heart • There are 4chambers • 2 above called atria • 2 below called ventricles. Atria • Are left and right. • Separated by a septum • Receiving blood from the big veins • Atrial wall not thick Ventricles • Pumping chambers right and left • Their wall is thicker than the atrial wall • left ventricale pumps blood to every part of the body, so its wall is the thicker one. Cardiac valves • permit blood flow only in one direction. A.atrioventricular (AV) : two valves • Tricusped valve:is right AV valve, has 3 flaps • Mitral valves: is left AV valve, has 2 flaps.
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Semilunar valve (SL): Two valve • aortic valve: presents between left ventricale and aorta. • pulmonary valve:presents between right ventricle and pulmonary artery. Blood flow through the heart: • Blood will be collected by superior and inferior vena cavae to right atrium then its flows through tricuspid valve into right ventricle, • then through pulmonary valve to pulmonary artery to the lung , • here the blood will be oxygenated, • then it flow back through 4pulmonary veins to the left atrium, • and pass through mitral valve into left ventricale to pass through aortic valve to the aorta. Blood supply of heart tissue • Right and left coronary artries supply myocardiac cells with blood. Nerve supply of the heart: • Sympathetic fibers:3 branches, increase cardiac activity • Parasympathetic: part of vagus nerve, depress cardiac activity Blood vessels Types of blood vessels Artery: • carries blood from heart to periphery • conducts oxygenated blood, except the pulmonary artery. Vein: • carries blood from periphery to the heart. • conduct nonoxygenated blood, except 4 pulmonary veines. Capillary: • Carries blood from arteriole to venule Function of blood vessels The main function is blood transport. • Arteries o distribution o blood o keep blood pressure proper to his unction. • Veins o collect the blood , their wall-------distend - Capillary o it decrease the blood pressure. o it makes the blood flow is slow.
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