skinobjective - The Integumentary System Objectives The...

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The Integumentary System Objectives The Skin 1. Name the tissue types composing the epidermis and dermis. List the major layers of each and describe the functions of each layer. 2. Describe the factors that normally contribute to skin color. Briefly describe how changes in skin color may be used as clinical signs of certain disease states. Appendages of the Skin 3. Compare the structure and locations of sweat and oil glands. Also compare the composition and functions of their secretions. 4. Compare and contrast eccrine and apocrine glands. 5. List the parts of a hair follicle and explain the function of each part. Also describe the functional relationship of arrector pili muscles to the hair follicles. 6. Name the regions of a hair and explain the basis of hair color. Describe the distribution, growth, replacement, and changing nature of hair during the life span. 7. Describe the structure of nails. Functions of the Integumentary System 8. Describe how the skin accomplishes at least five different functions. Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin 9. Explain why serious burns are life threatening. Describe how to determine the extent of a burn and differentiate first-, second-, and third-degree burns. 10. Summarize the characteristics of the three major types of skin cancers. Developmental Aspects of the Integumentary System 11. Describe and attempt to explain the causes of changes that occur in the skin from birth to old age. Suggested Lecture Outline I. The Skin (pp. 149–155; Figs. 5.1–5.4)
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A. The hypodermis, also called the superficial fascia, is subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin consisting mostly of adipose tissue that anchors the skin to underlying muscle, allows skin to slide over muscle, and acts as a shock absorber and insulator (p. 149; Fig. 5.1). B. Epidermis (pp. 150–152; Fig. 5.2) 1. The epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. 2. Cells of the Epidermis a. The majority of epidermal cells are keratinocytes that produce a fibrous protective protein called keratin. b. Melanocytes are epithelial cells that synthesize the pigment melanin. c. Epidermal dendritic cells or Langerhans cells, are macrophages that help activate the immune system. d. Tactile cells are associated with sensory nerve endings. 3. Layers of the Epidermis a. The stratum basale (basal layer) is the deepest epidermal layer and is the site of mitosis. b. The stratum spinosum (prickly layer) is several cell layers thick and contains keratinocytes, melanin granules, and the highest concentration of epidermal dendritic cells. c. The stratum granulosum (granular layer) contains keratinocytes that are undergoing a great deal of physical changes, turning them into the tough outer cells of the epidermis. d. The stratum lucidum (clear layer) is found only in thick skin and is composed of
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skinobjective - The Integumentary System Objectives The...

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