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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 The Skeleton Matching Questions Figure 7.1 Using Figure 7.1, match the following: 1) Artic ulates with hip bones of the pelvis. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 219; Fig. 7.13 2) Attach to ribs. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222; Fig. 7.13 3) Rec eive the most stress. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 223; Fig. 7.13 4) Transverse foramen present. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221; Fig. 7.13 1 5) No canals or foramen present. Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 225; Fig. 7.18 6) Contains alae. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 225; Fig. 7.13 7) Contains the atlas and the axis. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221; Fig.7.13 8) Contains the joint that allows you to rotate your head ʺno.ʺ Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222; Fig. 7.13 Figure 7.2 Using Figure 7.2, match the following: 9) Nasal septum. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211; Fig. 7.7 10) Turbinate bone. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211; Fig. 7.7 11) Orbital area. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211; Fig. 7.7 12) Olfac tory bulb sits on this. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 210; Fig. 7.7 13) Nasal c oncha. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211; Fig. 7.7 14) Roosterʹs comb. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211; Fig. 7.7 2 Match the following: 15) These very small bones are at the medial border of each eye. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 213 A) Temporal Bones B) Sphenoid 16) Failure of these anterior bones to fuse causes a c ondition known as c left palate. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 212 C) Lacrimal bones D) Maxillae 17) This bone houses the apparatus of the inner and middle ear. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 18) This bone is wing‑shaped and extends behind the eyes and forms part of the floor of the cranial vault. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 209 19) The bones that contain teeth. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 212 20) This bone has a pasageway into the nasal cavity. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 213 21) The sella turc ica is a portion of this bone. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 209 15) C 16) D 17) A 18) B 19) D 20) C 21) B Match the following: 22) The fingers have three of these bones an the thumb has only two. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 237 A) Humerus B) Radius C) Phlanges 23) This bone artic ulates with the glenoid fossa. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 231 24) Forearm bone that articulates with most of the c arpals. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232 22) C 23) A 24) B 3 Match the following: 25) Thic kest c entrum with short blunt spinous proc esses. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 223 A) Cocc yx B) Lumbar vertebrae C) Atlas D) Thoracic vertebrae 26) Fused rudimentary tailbone. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 225 27) A circ le of bone that artic ulates superiorly with the occipital condyles. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221‑222 28) These bones have articular facets for the ribs. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222 29) Allows the head to nod ʺyes.ʺ Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221‑222 25) B 26) A 27) C 28) D 29) C Match the following: 30) Lambdoid. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 A) Temporal and parietal B) Parietal and frontal 31) Sagittal. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 C) Occ ipital and temporal D) Occ ipital and parietal 32) Squamosal. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 E) Right and left parietal 33) Coronal. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 34) Occ ipitomastoid. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 30) D 31) E 32) A 33) B 34) C True/False Questions 1) A Colleʹs fracture is a break in the distal end of the radius. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232 2) All of the bones of the skull, exc ept the mandible, are united by sutures and are therefore immovable. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 203 4 3) The foramen magnum goes through the occipital bone. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 4) The mastoid sinuses are located at a position in the skull where they are usually free from infections. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 5) The vertebral column is held in place primarily by the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 220 6) Ribs numbered 11 and 12 are true ribs bec ause they have no anterior attachments. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228 7) The most c ommon site of frac ture in the humerus is the anatomical neck. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 233 8) The laymanʹs name for the sc apula is the collarbone. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 229 9) A temporal bone protrusion riddled with sinuses is the styloid process. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 10) Costal cartilages join most ribs to the sternum. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 226­227 11) The tuberc le of a rib artic ulates with the transverse process of a vertebra. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228 12) In women of childbearing age, the dimensions of the true pelvis are of utmost importance. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 239 13) The term vertebrochondral ribs refers to ribs that attach to each other before they attach to the sternum. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 228 14) In the anatomical position, the lateral forearm bone is the radius. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 234 15) The vomer forms part of the nasal septum. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 213 16) The cranial vault of the skull is also called the calvaria. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 203 5 17) The lacrimal bones c ontain openings that allow the tear ducts to pass. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 213 18) The largest and strongest bone of the fac e is the maxilla. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211­212 19) Each intervertebral disc possesses a nuc leus pulposus and an annulus fibrosus. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 220 20) There are seven cervic al, twelve thorac ic, and five lumbar vertebrae. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 218­219 21) Lordosis affects the thorac ic vertebrae. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 219 22) All vertebrae possess a body, a spine, and transverse foramina. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221 23) The dens articulates with the axis. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222 24) The master gland of the body (pituitary gland) is housed in a saddlelike depression in the temporal bone called the sella turcic a. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 209 25) The ischium artic ulates with both the ilium and the pubis. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 237; Fig. 7.27 Multiple­Choice Questions 1) A structure found on the femur is the ________. A) anterior crest B) malleolus C) linea aspera D) apex Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 241 6 2) Which forms the major portion of the coxal bone? A) isc hium B) pubis C) ilium D) pelvic Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 237 3) The inferiormost part of the sternum is the ________. A) xiphoid process B) body C) manubrium D) ala Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 226­227 4) The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are c alled ________. A) areolas B) foramina C) sutures D) fontanels Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 247 5) The axial skeleton contains ________. A) the skull, vertebral column, and pelvis B) arms, legs, hands, and feet C) the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage D) shoulder and pelvic girdles Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 203 6) The ethmoid bone is composed of all of the following except the ________. A) superior nasal concha B) crista galli C) cribriform plate D) inferior nasal c oncha Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 210­211 7) Only the ________ vertebra does not have a body. A) last lumbar B) axis C) atlas D) last cervical Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221 7 8) The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________. A) coronal B) sagittal C) lambdoid D) squamosal Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 9) The pituitary gland is housed in the ________. A) vomer bone B) sinuses of the ethmoid C) sella turc ica of the sphenoid D) foramen lac erum Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 209 10) The hyoid bone is unique bec ause ________. A) it is the only bone of the body that does not artic ulate with any other bone B) it is shaped like a plow C) it is c overed with muc osa D) it has no spec ific function Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 218 11) Along with support, the broad anterior ligament of the vertebral c olumn also acts to ________. A) hold the disc s in place B) prevent hyperextension of the spine C) hold the spine erect D) protect the spinal cord Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 220 12) The major function of the intervertebral discs is to ________. A) absorb shoc k B) string the vertebrae together C) prevent injuries D) prevent hyperextension Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 220 13) All of the following fac ial bones are paired except one. Which of the following is the unpaired facial bone? A) palatine B) lac rimal C) vomer D) maxillae Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 212 8 14) Paranasal sinuses are found in which of these fac ial bones? A) zygomatic B) nasal conchae C) vomer D) maxillae Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 214, 218 15) Which of the following is an abnormal lateral c urvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region? A) kyphosis B) sc oliosis C) lordosis D) swaybac k Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 219 16) Which of the following phrases best describes the function of the vertebral c urves? A) to provide resilienc e and flexibility B) to accommodate musc le attachment C) to absorb shock and trauma D) to accommodate the weight of the pelvic girdle Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 219 17) The body or centrum of the thoracic vertebrae are ________. A) triangular B) oval C) heart shaped D) round Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222 18) Which part of the vertebral column rec eives the most stress by bearing most of the weight of the body? A) the sacrum B) the c ervical region C) the lumbar region D) the sacral promontory Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 223 19) Which of the following statements is true regarding the loc ation of the center of gravity of the body? A) It is 1 cm posterior to the sacral promontory. B) It is 2 cm anterior to the sacral foramina. C) It is 1 cm lateral to the sacroiliac joints of the pelvis. D) It is 1 cm superior to the median sacral crest. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 225 9 20) Thoracic vertebrae T2 through T8 differ from the others in that ________. A) they have no transverse processes B) they have superior and inferior demifacets C) they have transverse foramina D) they have no intervertebral discs Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 222 21) The major function of the axial skeleton is to ________. A) give the body resilience B) provide an attachment point for musc les that allow movement C) provide central support for the body and protect internal organs D) provide a spac e for the heart and lungs Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 203 22) The antebrachium is c omposed of which of the following two bones? A) the radius and the ulna B) the humerus and the c lavic le C) the scapula and the clavic le D) the humerus and the radius Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232 23) The ʺtrue wristʺ or c arpus consists of ________. A) a group of eight short bones united by ligaments B) the phalanges C) the styloid processes of the radius and ulna D) the metac arpals Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 233 24) The short bone that attaches to the third metac arpal is the ________. A) trapezoid B) hamate C) capitate D) triquetral Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 235, 237 25) The bone in direct contact with the first metatarsal (big toe) is the ________. A) medial cuneiform B) lateral c uneiform C) c uboid D) calc aneus Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 244 10 26) The skull bone that the foramen magnum passes through is the ________. A) atlas B) axis C) occ ipital D) parietal Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 207 27) Choose the statement that is most correct about orbits. A) The orbits are formed of both fac ial and cranial bones. B) The orbits contain only fac ial bones. C) The orbits contain only c ranial bones. D) The orbits are made entirely of c artilage. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 213 28) Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses? A) Paranasal sinuses open into the oral cavity. B) Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voic e and lighten the skull. C) Paranasal sinuses contain passages acting as one­way valves. D) Paranasal sinuses are found in maxillary, ethmoid, and lacrimal bones. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 214, 218 29) The middle nasal concha is part of which bone? A) maxilla B) zygomatic C) nasal D) ethmoid Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211 30) The superior orbital fissure is formed in the sphenoid bone, whereas the inferior orbital fissure is formed between the ________ and ________. A) sphenoid/maxilla B) sphenoid/zygomatic C) sphenoid/ethmoid D) sphenoid/lac rimal Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 209­210, 213 31) Which of the following is the abnormal curve often seen in pregnant women as they attempt to preserve their center of gravity toward the end of the pregnanc y? A) kyphosis B) spina bifida C) sc oliosis D) lordosis Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 219 11 32) Thoracic vertebrae 11 and 12 are different from the others in which of the following characteristics? A) The orientation of the artic ular proc esses is different from all the other thorac ic vertebrae. B) The transverse proc esses do not have fac ets that artic ulate with the tuberc les of the ribs. C) There are two foramina on vertebrae 11 and 12. D) The spinous proc esses are directed parallel with the centrum. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222 33) A bone that contains diaphysis and epiphysis areas, a curvature for strength, and is proportionally more compact than spongy bone is the ________. A) parietal bone B) talus C) humerus D) cervic al vertebra Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 230 34) The superior nasal concha is a part of which bone? A) vomer B) ethmoid C) sphenoid D) maxilla Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211 35) The artic ulation that most closely resembles a hinge in the body involves which bones? A) humerus­ulna B) humerus­radius C) femur­tibia D) femur­fibula Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232 36) The pelvic girdle does not inc lude the ________. A) sacrum B) ilium C) isc hium D) pubis Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 237 37) The following is not a structure found on the ischium. A) superior ramus B) inferior ramus C) lesser sciatic notch D) superior body Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 237, 239 12 38) Which of the following bones is not weight bearing? A) femur B) tibia C) fibula D) tarsus Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 244 39) The tibia is in contact with which tarsus? A) calc aneus B) c uboid C) navicular D) talus Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242­244 Short Answer Questions 1) The heel bone is c alled the ________. Answer: calc aneus Diff: 1 Page Ref: 244 2) The lateral c ondyle of the femur artic ulates with the lateral condyle of the ________. Answer: tibia Diff: 1 Page Ref: 241 3) The medial condyle of the femur artic ulates with the medial condyle of the ________. Answer: tibia Diff: 1 Page Ref: 241 4) The largest foramen in the body is the ________ foramen. Answer: obturator Diff: 1 Page Ref: 239 5) The smallest short bone in the hand is the ________. Answer: pisiform Diff: 1 Page Ref: 235 6) The styloid process of the ________ points to the thumb. Answer: radius Diff: 1 Page Ref: 232 7) The large fossa on the anterior aspect of the scapula is the ________. Answer: subsc apular fossa Diff: 1 Page Ref: 229 8) Only the ________ vertebrae have transverse foramina. Answer: cervic al Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221 9) The ________ is the primary bone in the septum of the nose. Answer: vomer Diff: 1 Page Ref: 213 13 10) Your cheek is composed of the ________ bone. Answer: zygomatic Diff: 1 Page Ref: 213 11) Why is the area just distal to the tuberc les of the humerus c alled the surgic al nec k? Answer: This area is called the surgic al neck because it is the most frequently fractured part of the humerus. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 232 12) What are the fontanels and what advantages do they c onfer on the fetus? The mother? Answer: The fontanels are regions of unossified, fibrous membrane in the skull allowing the cranium to enlarge and ease in the delivery of the child. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 246 13) Desc ribe the composition of the intervertebral disc s. Answer: Intervertebral discs are composed of an inner semifluid nucleus pulposus, which gives the disc s elastic ity and compressibility, and a covering of fibrocartilage, the annulus fibrosus, which limits expansion and holds successive vertebrae together. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 220 14) Desc ribe the differenc es between the bones of the lower and upper limb and briefly state why these differences exist. Answer: The lower limbs carry the weight of the body and are subjected to exceptional forces. These bones are thic ker and stronger. The upper limb bones are adapted for flexibility and mobility and are therefore smaller and lighter. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 231, 239 15) How are the pec toral and pelvic girdles structurally different? How is this difference reflected in their functions? Answer: The pectoral girdle moves freely across the thorax and allows the upper limb a high degree of mobility, while the pelvic girdle is secured to the axial skeleton to provide strength and support. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 229, 237 16) How do the first two cervic al vertebrae differ from other cervic al vertebrae? What are their functions? Answer: The atlas or C1 vertebra has no body. It artic ulates with the skull with large c urved articular surfac es to allow the skull to roc k in a ʺyesʺ motion. The axis or C2 vertebra has a dens that allows the axis to pivot, giving the head the ʺnoʺ motion. The vertebral foramen of the atlas is enlarged so that when the head is pivoted in the ʺnoʺ motion, the spinal cord can move. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 221 17) Desc ribe how the arches of the foot are maintained. Answer: There are three arches: the medial and lateral longitudinal arches, and the transverse arch. Together they form a half­cone that distributes the weight of the body. They are maintained by the shape of the foot bones, strong ligaments, and by the pull of some tendons. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 244­245 18) Which are the four major sutural bones and between which bones are they found? Answer: 1. Coronal ­ parietal and frontal 2. Sagittal ­ between the parietal bones 3. Squamous ­ parietal and temporal 4. Lambdoidal ­ parietal and occipital Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207 14 19) Which c anal and three foramen are found going through the sphenoid bone? Answer: 1. Optic al c anal 2. Foramen rotundum 3. Foramen ovale 4. Foramen spinosum Diff: 1 Page Ref: 209 20) If the hyoid bone is not attached to another bone why is it so important? Answer: The hyoid acts as an attachment point for musc les in the throat region to connect the musc les in the lower jaw region. It allows for the musc les to make a right angle at the junction of the lower jaw and throat. The hyoid serves as a movable base for the tongue and its horns are attachment points for nec k muscles that raise and lower the larynx during speech and swallowing. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218 21) What is the purpose of the articular proc esses of the vertebrae? Answer: These processes (superior and inferior) allow the vertebral column to flex forward some, but loc k the vertebrae if the column is flexed bac k. In a four­legged animal, such as a horse, these proc esses allow the bac k to remain in plac e while you ride it. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221 Essay Questions 1) After having a severe c old accompanied by nasal congestion, Jamila complained that she had a frontal headache and that the right side of her face ached. What specific bony struc tures probably bec ame infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the c old? Answer: The paranasal sinuses specific ally the frontal sinus located in the frontal bone and the right maxillary sinus located in the right maxilla. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 214, 218 2) A skeleton was found in a wooded area. It was brought to a forensic medicine laboratory for identific ation. The first thing the coroner did was determine the age, sex, and possible size of the person. What was examined in order to get this information? Answer: By examining the shape of the pelvic inlet, the depth of the iliac fossa, the characteristic s of the ilium, and the angle inferior to the pubic symphysis, one could determine the sex. Also signific ant for determining the sex of the skeleton are the position of the ac etabulum, the shape of the obturator foramen, and the general design of the ischium. To determine the age of the individual, bone density and markings are important. The markings where musc les were attached will reveal information about the mass and the general shape of the person. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 203­248 3) Jason is a 14­year­old who rec ently had his nose pierc ed. He tells his mother that the area is very tender and warm to the touch. The area is also red. The mother calls the pediatric ianʹs offic e and the nurse rec ommends that the mother bring Jason in for evaluation. The nurse explains to the mother that a loc al infection can spread and cause serious harm. Where do you think the infection could spread and why? Answer: Infection of nasal pierc ings can spread to the brain and cause serious complications. Infections in the brain may occur because of the direct extension from the ear, tooth, mastoid, or sinus infection. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 207 15 4) Sharon is a 32­year­old horse trainer. While training a young horse, she was thrown off of the horse and suffered a mild head injury. The nurse inquires about the use of a helmet. Sharon replies, ʺThis is the first time I have ever had a head injury from a horse. I donʹt think I need a helmet.ʺ Based on your understanding of the skull, how should the nurse respond to the c lient? Answer: The skull is the bodyʹs most c omplex bony structure. It is formed by c ranial and fac ial bones. The cranial bones, or cranium, enclose and protect the fragile brain. A helmet would add extra protec tion in sports where there is an increased risk for head injury. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 203 5) You are a school nurse in a middle school. You are responsible for screening the children for sc oliosis. What is involved in this screening? Answer: Sc oliosis literally means ʺtwisted diseaseʺ and is an abnormal lateral curvature that occurs most often in the thoracic region. It is quite common during late childhood. The nurse would need to observe the child standing erect, disrobed from the waist up. An older girl may leave her bra on. The child is observed from behind and the nurse would note any asymmetry of the shoulders and hips. With the child bending forward so that the bac k is parallel to the floor, the nurse may observe from the side, noting asymmetry or prominence of the rib cage. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 219 6) When administrating cardiopulmonary resusc itation, the nurse should locate the tip of the xiphoid by plac ing two fingers on the xiphoid proc ess and then plac ing the heel of the other hand just above this site on the lower half of the sternum. What complic ations do you think could occur if the nurse places his or her hand on the xiphoid process? Answer: The lungs could be punctured by the xiphoid proc ess. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 226­227 16 17 ...
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