chap4 - Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Logics for...

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Unformatted text preview: Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Logics for Artificial Intelligence Stuart C. Shapiro Department of Computer Science and Engineering and Center for Cognitive Science University at Buffalo, The State University of New York Buffalo, NY 14260-2000 shapiro@cse.buffalo.edu copyright c 1995, 20042010 by Stuart C. Shapiro Page 1 Contents Part I 1. Introduction ............................................................ 4 2. Propositional Logic .................................................... 19 3. Predicate Logic Over Finite Models................................... 173 4. Full First-Order Predicate Logic ...................................... 224 5. Summary of Part I....................................................362 Part II 6. Prolog ................................................................ 375 7. A Potpourri of Subdomains ........................................... 411 8. SNePS................................................................429 9. Belief Revision/Truth Maintenance ................................... 511 10. The Situation Calculus ............................................... 569 11. Summary ............................................................ 588 Part III 12. Production Systems...................................................601 13. Description Logic ..................................................... 610 14. Abduction ............................................................ 627 Page 3 4 Full First-Order Predicate Logic (FOL) 4.1 CarPool World.............................................225 4.2 The Standard First-Order Predicate Logic ............... 227 4.3 Clause-Form First-Order Predicate Logic...................260 4.4 Translating Standard Wffs into Clause Form ............... 306 4.5 Asking Wh Questions ...................................... 325 Page 224 4.1 CarPool World Well add Tom and Bettys mothers: motherOf ( Tom ) and motherOf ( Betty ) Page 225 CarPool World Domain Rules (Partial) x ( Driver ( x ) Passenger ( x )) x , y ( Drives ( x , y ) ( Driver ( x ) Passenger ( y ))) Page 226 4.2 The Standard First-Order Predicate Logic 1. Syntax .................................................... 228 2. Semantics ................................................. 240 3. Model Checking ........................................... 252 4. Hilbert-Style Proof Theory ................................ 253 5. Fitch-Style Proof Theory .................................. 255 Page 227 4.2.1 Syntax of the Standard First-Order Predicate Logic Atomic Symbols Individual Constants: Any letter of the alphabet (preferably early), any (such) letter with a numeric subscript, any character string not containing blanks nor other punctuation marks....
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chap4 - Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Logics for...

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