chap3 - Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Logics for...

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Unformatted text preview: Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Logics for Artificial Intelligence Stuart C. Shapiro Department of Computer Science and Engineering and Center for Cognitive Science University at Buffalo, The State University of New York Buffalo, NY 14260-2000 shapiro@cse.buffalo.edu copyright c 1995, 20042010 by Stuart C. Shapiro Page 1 Contents Part I 1. Introduction ............................................................ 4 2. Propositional Logic .................................................... 19 3. Predicate Logic Over Finite Models................................... 173 4. Full First-Order Predicate Logic ...................................... 224 5. Summary of Part I....................................................363 Part II 6. Prolog ................................................................ 376 7. A Potpourri of Subdomains ........................................... 412 8. SNePS................................................................430 9. Belief Revision/Truth Maintenance ................................... 512 10. The Situation Calculus ............................................... 570 11. Summary ............................................................ 589 Part III 12. Production Systems...................................................602 13. Description Logic ..................................................... 611 14. Abduction ............................................................ 628 Page 3 3 Predicate Logic Over Finite Models 3.1 CarPool World.............................................174 3.2 The Standard Finite-Model Predicate Logic..............175 3.3 Clause Form Finite-Model Predicate Logic ................. 211 Page 173 3.1 CarPool World Propositional Logic Tom drives Betty Betty drives Tom Tom is the driver Betty is the driver Tom is the passenger Betty is the passenger related only by the domain rules. Predicate Logic Drives ( Tom , Betty ) Drives ( Betty , Tom ) Driver ( Tom ) Driver ( Betty ) Passenger ( Tom ) Passenger ( Betty ) shows two properties, one relation, and two individuals. Page 174 3.2 The Standard Finite-Model Predicate Logic 1. Syntax .................................................... 176 2. Substitutions .............................................. 187 3. Semantics ................................................. 190 4. Model Checking in Finite-Model Predicate Logic...........202 Page 175 3.2.1 Syntax of the Standard Finite-Model Predicate Logic Atomic Symbols Individual Constants: Any letter of the alphabet (preferably early), any (such) letter with a numeric subscript, any character string not containing blanks nor other punctuation marks....
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chap3 - Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Logics for...

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