LECTURE 10 BILD1 S10

LECTURE 10 BILD1 S10 - ANNOUNCEMENTS Midterm Exam#2 this...

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1 ANNOUNCEMENTS Midterm Exam #2 this Wednesday, May 5th in class - Exam covers Chapters 8-13 (but NOT Chpt 11) - Extra TA Office Hours, as posted on website - Use class Google Groups for help! - Bring photo ID and pen Midterm Exam #1 regrades returned today after class, or available for pickup in NSB 4119 C hromosome one molecule of dsDNA Sister C hromatids identical, attached chromatids of a duplicated chromosome C entromere site where sister chromatids attach chromosome, and where kinetochores attach spindle microtubules C entrosomes site of microtubule organization that anchors the poles of the mitotic spindle Stages of the Cell Cycle …M --> Interphase ( G1, S, G2 ) --> Mitotic Phase ( M, Cytokinesis ) --> G1, S, G2… INTERPHASE Gap Phase, G 1 S Phase Gap Phase, G 2 Cytokinesis Mitosis MITOTIC (M) PHASE Stages of the Cell Cycle …M --> Interphase ( G1, S, G2 ) --> Mitotic Phase ( M, Cytokinesis ) --> G1, S, G2… INTERPHASE Gap Phase, G 1 S Phase Gap Phase, G 2 Cytokinesis Mitosis MITOTIC (M) PHASE Cell Growth DNA Duplication Make Proteins for Mitosis Segregate DNA Divide Cell
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2 Lecture 10: Meiosis May 3, 2010 Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction One parent produces genetically identical offspring by mitosis Parent Bud 0.5 mm Sexual reproduction Two parents give rise to offspring with unique combinations of genes Figure 13.1 Willie Offspring inherit a combination of parental traits Heredity transmission of traits from one generation to the next Variation offspring differ from parents and siblings Genetics scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation The process of meiosis underlies the genetic basis of heredity and hereditary variation Genes - units of heredity - segments of DNA Offspring acquire genes inherited on chromosomes Chromosomes one set inherited from mother, one set from father Humans = 2 sets of 23 chromosomes (46) The process of meiosis ensures the inheritance of a combination of chromosomes (…traits…) from mother & father
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3 “Reducing Division” (in half) Division of diploid cell with two sets of chromosomes to generate 4 haploid gametes, each with one set of chromosomes Fusion of sperm & egg gametes to generate zygote with two sets of chromosomes Meiosis and Fertilization alternate in sexual life cycles Fertilization Meiosis Figure 13.3 Diploidy: One set of chromosomes inherited from each parent Humans Karyotype (2n = 46) 2 sets of 23 chromosomes, including 2 sex chromosomes 5 µ m Pair of homologous chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Homologous chromosomes - Two chromosomes composing a pair - Have the same characteristics - May also be called autosomes Sex chromosomes - Distinct from each other (X and Y) - Determine sex: XX female, XY male Diploid cells (2 n ) have two sets of chromosomes Figure 13.4 Diploid cell (2 n ) has two sets of chromosomes Maternal set of
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