Week Two Lecture, The Discovery and Settlement of the New World 2.1

Week Two Lecture, The Discovery and Settlement of the New World 2.1

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Unformatted text preview: C lc i ko t a d d n o ts e 2 Q u e e n . c F e rd in a n d a n d I s a b e lla ; A r r iv e d i n A m e r ic a . t i n O c t o b e r o f 1 49 2 th en Sa on n ti Sa lv nu ed ad o r— to an R m e e p n N ot s u i sl and lic ) e re re he h n ex ac tl y w h e re cal le d H is p an h h re t e u b rn e lie v e ed to d S i t i o la s ( S t h e op pe pr es rt b d e the n t -d A g re , ay H e o m u s e H a it i/ D o le ft s om m e in ic a n of h is u b th w a ic d to b p a in e a p a n d of ro u s ia . h t s m b n a t iv es w it h h b ack w i th ev e H i s pan o la cau im to sh ow th e k in g a nd n m o re m e n. In the m e a s ed a lo t of tro ub le w it h d ia H e n s m and ade t a o t o o k s tal ev of qu een n ti m e , th e n a . Th ey s en t C o lu h is s o ld ie rs on t iv es an d C o lu m b s ac ov k e t r o Sp a in ten y e a b u s b e C li ck to ad d atta s o ld not e s c k e as d s th e la v e In s. e ra l of th em fo u r v oy ag e to rs . 3 3 3 Who discovered America? Why is “discovery” in quotation marks? Was Columbus the first person ever to arrive in America? Was he the first to come to America from another continent? Who came to America before Columbus? But Columbus and other explorers didn’t have maps that showed this new land as continents. A lot of people had to continue to e xplore these new areas before the Old World had a reliable image o f what the New World looked like. 1 4 1 C lc i ko t a d d n o ts e 3 B t h e u t C n lo h o lu m b u s a n d o th e r e x p l o re rs t t d id n ’ t h a v e m d h a p s t h a t s h o w e d g e 4 W W fi A h a o s t e d C i sc ov er ed o lu m b u s t c a om b e e f o to re A m e r ic h e fi rs t m e o lu a? p e W hy r s on m a is e v n o “ d er t h is c to r ov ar o e ry ” r iv e t in in in n t q uo t a t io n m a rk A m e ri ca? W as h ? W h o c a m e t o s? e rs m to r ic A C r ic a m bu f ro s ? e c n e th is ex p o f ew re t a t la n d he s e e N a s n e e w c on w a W o ti ne nts . A lo re a s b e fo re r ld l o o k e d of h e e . p eo O ld p le W o ha r ld to ad co a nt re in ue t lia b le o i m a w th lik C l i ck to a dd n ot es 1 C li ck to ad d not e s 4 1 4 1 4 The first people to come to America came from Asia between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago. At that time, the area between Russia and Alaska, known as the Bering Strait, was dry land and it was possible to walk across from Asia into North America. Scientists call this land bridge Beringia. Over the centuries, people from Asia migrated across the Bering Strait and settled throughout North and South America. There were many different societies scattered across the Americas, and some of these societies became fairly advanced. Europeans called these peoples Indians because they thought they had reached Asia, which they called the Indies. The term remained for centuries, even after everyone knew that this was a new land and not Asia. Navigation became more important because wars with the Ottoman Empire meant that European traders couldn’t use the same trading r outes as before. The Portuguese began much of Europe’s e xploration of the rest of the world. Henry the Navigator traveled to m any places along the coast of Africa and became the first of many i mportant Portuguese explorers. Bartolomeu Dias discovered the C ape of Good Hope in 1488, the southern tip of Africa. Vasco da G ama was the first European to reach India entirely by sea. 2 5 2 C lc i ko t a d d n o ts e C lc i ko t a d d n o ts e 1 T h e fir s t p e 0 o o p le t o c o m e t o A m e r ic a , c a m e fr o m A s ia e d b n i e t t w e e i n 1 0 , 0 0 0 N a v ig a t io n b e c a m e t T m E h u e o re im p o r ta n t b s e e c a u s e w a rs w i t h t h e O t t 4 to m a n 5 an d A la s to br 1 5, ka , 0 0 k n y e w n a rs as ag o. the B A t er that in g S t im e tra it , th w a e s e o a d re ry a b et la n d w e an n A R us s w as a and po ss i b la le d E m p ir e ro utes m as e an t b e fo o s f a th a re . ro p ea P or tu n g t u ra d er e se b c ou gan ld n ’t m uc u h s e of th e E ur s am e ope ’s ra d in d a g w a lk a c ro id g e B e ri n os s e ri c e ri c ss fr g ia . om A O v er s ia in to th e ce n N or th tu r ie s A m , p e r ic a p le . S c ie fr o m ti st s ia s ca m ig ll thi s ra te d n ex p lo ra m an y p t io n la c e th e re st lo ng the e e t s e in E u of the c oas t w o rl d. H of A fr ic a e nry an d th e b ec N a a m vi e ga to r tra v e the f ir s t of d o le m to n y acr A m A m th e B e ri ng Stra i t and s e t t le d thr oug h out N o rth a. Th e re w e re m an y d iff e re nt s oc ie t ie s sc atter as , an d s om e of the se s o c ie t ie s b eca m e fa ir ly ca lle d d A s ia e v , t he s e pe op le s w h ic h th ey ca a ft e r e v e ry o I l nd ia n s le d the e k n e w b ec Ind t h au se ie s . T t t h is a nd Sou th ed a c ro s s t ad v anc ed . th o rm a n u gh t r em a e w la h e im p o rta n t P o rtu gu C ape of G ood H op G am a w a s th e fi rs e x p lo re r s. 1 48 8 , th e ro p ean to B a r t o lo m e u s ou the rn ti p re a ch Ind ia e D ia s d is cov e re of A fr ic a. V as c n t ir e ly b y s e a. the da C l i ck to a dd E h u a ro p ea ns d re ach e e n n o t t fo r c an d n ot es the y he te w a s they in ed n d 2 uri es , A s ia . e n n a C li ck to ad d not e s 5 2 5 2 5 Queen Ferdinand and Isabella; Arrived in America in October of 1492. San Salvador—Not sure exactly where it is. Stopped there, then continued to an island he called Hispanola (the present-day Haiti/Dominican Republic) which he believed to be part of Asia. He left some of his men there and returned to Spain and brought some natives with him to show the king and queen. They sent Columbus back with even more men. In the meantime, his soldiers on Hispanola caused a lot of trouble with the natives and Columbus attacked the Indians and took several of them back to Spain to be sold as slaves. He made a total of four voyages over ten years. 3 Cantino Planisphere, 1502. An early map that showed how Europeans viewed the rest of the world based on the limited i nformation they had. Contrast the degree of detail of Europe and A frica with the vague dimensions of Asia and the almost i ncomprehensible depiction of the New World. 6 3 6 1 Who discovered America? Why is “discovery” in quotation marks? Was Columbus the first person ever to arrive in America? Was he the first to come to America from another continent? Who came to America before Columbus? C lc i ko t a d d n o ts e 3 B h e u t C n lo h o lu m b u s a n d o th e r e x p l o re rs t t d id n ’ t h a v e m d h a p s t h a t s h o w e d g e W W fi A h a o s t e d C i sc ov er ed o lu m b u s t c a om b e e f o to re A m e r ic h e fi rs t m ol e u a? pe W hy r s on m a is e v n o “ d er t h is c to r ov ar o e ry ” r iv e t in i in n t q uo t a t io n m a rk A m er ic a ? W a s h ? W h o c a m e t o s ? e t rs m to r ic A C r ic a m bu fr o s ? e c n e n th is ex p o f ew r e t a t t la n d he s e h e N as ne e w c ont w ar W o i nen ts . A lo eas b e fo re l o o k e d of h e e . p eo O ld p le W o ha r ld to ad co a nt re in ue t lia b le o i m a w r ld lik 1 4 1 4 C lc i ko t a d d n o ts e 4 T a h n e d fir s t 15 ,0 k a, a lk k a p 0 n c e 0 op le y ea to c om r s a go . th m v S e A B s i e A e a t t o A m e ri ca th at t im e, S t N ra i t, o rth c am e fr o the a re a dry ri ca le g h m be A s tw i a ee d is b n e tw ee n Ru s s ia w a s cal l 1 0 ,0 an d 0 0 N a v ig a t io n b e c a m e t T m E h u e o re i m p o rt a n t b s e e c a u l s e w a rs w i th t h e O t tt o m a n A la s to w b a A A E o w n ro s s g e a s fr o r in g in t o ce n d w as A m e la nd an . Sc ie n t fr om A ou t N o it ts p os t h is s ib le la nd E m p ir e ro utes m as e an t b e fo o s f a th a re . ro p ea P o rtu n g t u ra d er es e b c ou gan dn ’t m uc u h s e of th e E ur i s am e ope ’s ra d in d a g o y r id g e c ro ss m e m e u ro r ic r ic p e Be r in th e B a a a i a. r in O g e r th t r a it m of s e e a n s tur ie e t tl e s , d pe op th ro u s ia r th m ig an d ra te d S outh ex p lo r a m an y p t io n la c e th e re st lo ng the e e t s e in E u of the c oas t w o r ld . H of A fr ic a e nry an d th e b ec N a a m v e gato r tra v e th e f ir s t of l e m t n . The re w e re s , and s om e n s c a ll ed th e a ny d iffe re n t s o c ie t ie s s th es e s oc ie t i es be cam e p eo p le s In di ans b eca us the y c a lle e v e ry o ne d k th e n ew Ind ie th at s . th ca tte re d ac ro s s the f a ir l y a dv an ce d. e th ey tho ug ht th ey Th e te i s w as rm a n re m a ew la in e nd d im p o rta n t P o rtu gu C ape of G ood H op G am a w as th e fi rs e x p lo re rs . 1 48 8 , th e ro p ean to B a r t o lo m e u s ou the rn t ip re a c h Ind ia e D ia s d is cov e re d of A fr ic a. V as co n t ir e ly b y s e a. the da h ad f or c a n d re a e nt n o t che d u r ie s A si a A si a, w h ic h , e v en a ft e r . 2 5 2 5 C lc i ko t a d d n o ts e C lc i ko t a d d n o ts e 2 Q u e e n . c F e r d i n a n d a n d Is a b e ll a ; A rr iv e d in A m e r ic a in St h e O c t o b e r o f C a n t i n o P l a n i s p h e re t a , h d 1 e . 5 0 2 . A n e a r ly m a p t a e h a t sh o w e d f h o w a 5 14 9 2 th en S an S a lv a dor on t in ue d to a m e i n ic an o f hi s R m e e — n N ot s u is la n d re h e h n ex a c t ly w h er e it is . c a lle d H i s pan o la (t h r h et e u b el ie v e rne d to d S to b pa in op p e p re s rt b d e th e re , ntday A g s i a. ht s H e om s e E uro in fo r pe ans v ie m a ti on th w it p re h h w e ey d h re C o s t n t of th e ra s t th w o r ld b e d eg re se d on th of d etai l d ld t . h e a e o lim it e d E uro pe s t n d H a it i /D o le ft s om p n ub lic ) the re w a ic d e a pa n d of ro u A f r ic a in com the v a gu e di en s ib le d ep ic m e n t io n s io ns of of th e N A s ia an ew W or lm o nati ve s w it h bac k w it h e v H is p ano la ca atta so ld ck e a s d s the la v e h im to en m or us ed a In s . d ia H e s ho w the k in g e m en . In th e lo t o f tro u b le an d ad e t a o t o o k s ta l an d m ea w it h q uee n. Th n t im e, h is the n a t iv e of the m v oy a ge b s ey s en t Co lu m b u s o ld i e rs on s a nd Co lu m b us c v k e t r o S pa in ten y ea to r s. b ns m e v of e ra l fo ur a o e 3 6 3 6 1 Who dis co v e r e d A m e r ic a ? W hy is “di sc o ve ry ” in quo tat io n m a rk s ? W as C o lu mb us the fir st p e r so n ev er to a r riv e in A m e r ic a ? W as he the f ir st to co m e to A m e r ica f ro m a no th e r co n tine nt? W ho c am e to A m e ric a be fo r e C ol um bu s? Click to add notes 1 1 1 The first people to come to America came from Asia between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago. At that time, the area between Russia and Alaska, known as the Bering Strait, was dry land and it was possible to walk across from Asia into North America. Scientists call this land bridge Beringia. Over the centuries, people from Asia migrated across the Bering Strait and settled throughout North and South America. There were many different societies scattered across the Americas, and some of these societies became fairly advanced. Europeans called these peoples Indians because they thought they had reached Asia, which they called the Indies. The term remained for centuries, even after everyone knew that this was a new land and not Asia. W h o d i s c o v e r e d A m e r i c a ? W h y i s “ d i s c o v e r y ” i n q u o t a t i o n m a r k s ? W a s C o l u m b u s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n e v e r t o a r r i v e i n A m e r i c a ? W a s h e t h e f i r s t t o c o m e t o A m e r i c a f r o m a n o t h e r c o n t i n e n t ? W h o c a m e t o A m e r i c a b e f o r e C o l u m b u s ? C lick to ad d n o tes 1 1 1 Click to add notes T he fir st pe op le to co m e to A m e r ic a ca m e fro m A s ia be tw e e n 1 0 ,0 0 0 a nd 1 5 ,0 0 0 y ears ag o. At tha t tim e , th e area b e tw e e n R us sia an d A la s ka , k n ow n as th e B e rin g S tra it, w as dr y l an d an d it w as po ss ibl e to w a lk a c ro s s fr o m A s ia in to N o rth A me r ica . S cie n tists ca l l this la nd b r id ge B e ri ngi a. Over the c e ntur ie s, pe o pl e f ro m A sia m ig ra te d a c ro ss the B e r in g Str a it a nd se ttle d th ro u gho u t N o rth a nd S o uth A m e ric a . T he re w e re m a ny diffe r e n t so c ie tie s sc a tte re d a c ro s s th e A m e ric a s, an d so m e of th e s e s o cie tie s b e ca m e fa irly a dv a nc e d . E u ro p e a n s c a lle d the se p e o pl e s In dia n s be c a use th e y tho ug ht th e y ha d re a ch e d A sia , w h ic h the y ca ll e d the In die s. Th e te r m re m ai ne d fo r ce nt urie s , ev e n a fte r e ve r yo ne k ne w tha t this w as a ne w la nd a nd no t A s ia . 2 2 2 Queen Ferdinand and Isabella; Arrived in America in October of 1492. San Salvador—Not sure exactly where it is. Stopped there, then continued to an island he called Hispanola (the present-day Haiti/Dominican Republic) which he believed to be part of Asia. He left some of his men there and returned to Spain and brought some natives with him to show the king and queen. They sent Columbus back with even more men. In the meantime, his soldiers on Hispanola caused a lot of trouble with the natives and Columbus attacked the Indians and took several of them back to Spain to be sold as slaves. He made a total of four voyages over ten years. C lick to ad d T h e f i r s t p e o p l e t o c o m e t o A m e r i c a c a m e f r o m A s i a b e t w e e n 1 0 , 0 0 0 a n d 1 5 , 0 0 0 y e a r s a g o . A t t h a t t i m e , t h e a r e a b e t w e e n R u s s i a a n d A l a s k a , k n o w n a s t h e B e r i n g S t r a i t , w a s d r y l a n d a n d i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o w a l k a c r o s s f r o m A s i a i n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a . S c i e n t i s t s c a l l t h i s l a n d b r i d g e B e r i n g i a . O v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s , p e o p l e f r o m A s i a m i g r a t e d a c r o s s t h e B e r i n g S t r a i t a n d s e t t l e d t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a . T h e r e w e r e m a n y d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s s c a t t e r e d a c r o s s t h e A m e r i c a s , a n d s o m e o f t h e s e s o c i e t i e s b e c a m e f a i r l y a d v a n c e d . E u r o p e a n s c a l l e d t h e s e p e o p l e s I n d i a n s b e c a u s e t h e y t h o u g h t t h e y h a d r e a c h e d A s i a , w h i c h t h e y c a l l e d t h e I n d i e s . T h e t e r m r e m a i n e d f o r c e n t u r i e s , e v e n a f t e r e v e r y o n e k n e w t h a t t h i s w a s a n e w l a n d a n d n o tes n o t A s i a . 2 2 2 Click to add notes Q ue e n F e r din a nd an d I sa b e ll a ; A r riv e d in A m e ric a in O cto be r of 1492. Sa n Sa lva do r — N o t su re e xa c tly w h ere it is. Sto pp e d the re , th e n co nt inue d to an is la nd he c a lle d H i spa n o la (the pr e s e n t-da y H a iti/ D o m in ica n Re pu blic ) w h ich he be lie ve d to be p a rt of A sia . He l e ft s o me of h is men th e r e a nd r e t urn e d to Spa in a nd br o ugh t so m e n a ti ve s w ith hi m to s ho w th e k in g a nd que e n. T h ey se nt C o lum bu s ba c k w ith ev en mo r e m en . In the m e a n tim e , h is s o ldie r s on H is pa no l a c a us e d a lo t of tr o ubl e w it h the na ti ve s a nd C o lu m bus a tta c ke d the In dia ns a nd to o k s e v e ra l of th e m b a ck to S pa in to be so l d as s la v e s . He m a de a to ta l of f o ur v o ya g e s o ve r te n ye a rs . 3 3 3 But Columbus and other explorers didn’t have maps that showed this new land as continents. A lot of people had to continue to explore these new areas before the Old World had a reliable image of what the New World looked like. C lick to ad d Q u e e n F e r d i n a n d a n d I s a b e l l a ; A r r i v e d i n A m e r i c a i n O c t o b e r o f 1 4 9 2 . S a n S a l v a d o r — N o t s u r e e x a c t l y w h e r e i t i s . S t o p p e d t h e r e , t h e n c o n t i n u e d t o a n i s l a n d h e c a l l e d H i s p a n o l a ( t h e p r e s e n t d a y H a i t i / D o m i n i c a n R e p u b l i c ) w h i c h h e b e l i e v e d t o b e p a r t o f A s i a . H e l e f t s o m e o f h i s m e n t h e r e a n d r e t u r n e d t o S p a i n a n d b r o u g h t s o m e n a t i v e s w i t h h i m t o s h o w t h e k i n g a n d q u e e n . T h e y s e n t C o l u m b u s b a c k w i t h e v e n m o r e m e n . I n t h e m e a n t i m e , h i s s o l d i e r s o n H i s p a n o l a c a u s e d a l o t o f t r o u b l e w i t h t h e n a t i v e s a n d C o l u m b u s a t t a c k e d t h e I n d i a n s a n d t o o k s e v e r a l o f t h e m b a c k t o S p a i n t o b e s o l d a s s l a v e s . H e m a d e a t o t a l o f f o u r v o y a g e s o v e r t e n y e a r s . n o tes 3 3 3 B ut C o lum bu s an d o the r e x plo r e r s d idn’t ha ve m a ps tha t s ho w e d t h is n ew la n d as co nt ine nts . A lo t of pe o pl e h ad to c o ntin ue to e xp lo re the se ne w areas be fo re the O ld W o rl d ha d a re lia bl e im a g e of w h at the N ew W o rld lo o k e d lik e . Click to add notes 4 4 4 Navigation became more important because wars with the Ottoman Empire meant that European traders couldn’t use the same trading routes as before. The Portuguese began much of Europe’s exploration of the rest of the world. Henry the Navigator traveled to many places along the coast of Africa and became the first of many important Portuguese explorers. Bartolomeu Dias discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, the southern tip of Africa. Vasco da Gama was the first European to reach India entirely by sea. B u t C o l u m b u s a n d o t h e r e x p l o r e r s d i d n ’ t h a v e m a p s t h a t s h o w e d t h i s n e w l a n d a s c o n t i n e n t s . A l o t o f p e o p l e h a d t o c o n t i n u e t o e x p l o r e t h e s e n e w a r e a s b e f o r e t h e O l d W o r l d h a d a r e l i a b l e i m a g e o f w h a t t h e N e w W o r l d l o o k e d l i k e . C lick to ad d n o tes 4 4 4 Click to add notes N a v iga tio n be ca m e mo r e im po rt an t be ca use w a rs w ith the O tto m an E m p ire m ean t tha t E ur o pe a n tr a de r s c o ul dn’t u se th e s a me tr ad ing r o ute s as be fo re . T he Po r tugu e s e be ga n m u ch of Eur o pe ’s e xp lo ra tio n of the res t of the w o rl d. H e nr y th e N a v iga to r tra v e l e d to m a ny pla c e s a lo ng the c oa s t of A fr ic a an d b ec am e th e f irs t of m a ny i m po r ta nt P o rtu gue se e xp lo re rs . B a rto lo m e u D i as di sc ov e re d th e Cap e of Go o d Hop e in 1488, th e s o uth e r n tip of A fr ic a. V as co da G am a w as the fir st E ur op e an to re a c h I ndi a e n tire ly by s e a. 5 5 5 Cantino Planisphere, 1502. An early map that showed how Europeans viewed the rest of the world based on the limited information they had. Contrast the degree of detail of Europe and Africa with the vague dimensions of Asia and the almost incomprehensible depiction of the New World. N a v i g a t i o n b e c a m e m o r e i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e w a r s w i t h t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e m e a n t t h a t E u r o p e a n t r a d e r s c o u l d n ’ t u s e t h e s a m e t r a d i n g r o u t e s a s b e f o r e . T h e P o r t u g u e s e b e g a n m u c h o f E u r o p e ’ s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . H e n r y t h e N a v i g a t o r t r a v e l e d t o m a n y p l a c e s a l o n g t h e c o a s t o f A f r i c a a n d b e c a m e t h e f i r s t o f m a n y i m p o r t a n t P o r t u g u e s e e x p l o r e r s . B a r t o l o m e u D i a s d i s c o v e r e d t h e C a p e o f G o o d H o p e i n 1 4 8 8 , t h e s o u t h e r n t i p o f A f r i c a . V a s c o d a G a m a w a s t h e f i r s t E u r o p e a n t o r e a c h I n d i a e n t i r e l y b y s e a . C lick to ad d n o tes 5 5 5 C a n tino P la nis phe r e , 1502 . An e a rly m ap tha t sho w e d h ow E u ro p e a n s v ie w e d t he re st of the w o rld ba se d on the lim ite d i n fo rm a tio n the y h a d. C o n tra s t the de gr e e of d e ta i l of Eu ro pe A fr ic a w ith th e v a gu e di m e n sio ns of A s ia a nd th e al mo s t i n co m pr e he nsib le de pic tio n of the N ew W o rld . a nd Click to add notes 6 6 6 Spain had two major goals for exploring and colonizing America. The Spanish wanted gold, and they wanted to spread Christianity. Catholic missionaries wanted to save the souls of the “heathens,” their word for non-Christians. C a n t i n o P l a n i s p h e r e , 1 5 0 2 . A n e a r l y m a p t h a t s h o w e d h o w E u r o p e a n s v i e w e d t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d b a s e d o n t h e l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y h a d . C o n t r a s t t h e d e g r e e o f d e t a i l o f E u r o p e A f r i c a w i t h t h e v a g u e d i m e n s i o n s o f A s i a a n d t h e a l m o s t i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e N e w W o r l d . a n d C lick to ad d n o tes 6 6 6 Sp a in h ad tw o m a jo r go a ls for e xp lo rin g a nd co l on izi ng A m e ric a . T he S p a nis h w a nte d go ld, an d th e y w a nte d to s pr e a d C h ris tia nity . C a t ho lic m iss io na r ie s w a nte d to s a ve the s ou ls of the “ h e a the n s ,” t h e ir w o rd fo r n o n-C hri stia ns . Click to add notes 7 7 7 The Aztecs (the European term for the Mexica) were the most developed indigenous people in America. They had a very complex society and built large pyramid temples. However, they fought against many neighboring Indian tribes and practiced human sacrifice. Their capital city was called Tenochtitlan and was the largest city in North America. Cortes became allies with some of the local Indian tribes who were enemies with the Aztecs. At first, the Aztec emperor Montezuma surrendered to Cortes, and Cortes allowed Montezuma to remain in power while Spanish soldiers occupied the city. Later, when Cortes left the city to meet another Spanish explorer in Mexico, the Aztecs rebelled and killed Montezuma. Cortes eventually regained control of the city. He destroyed most of the city and had it rebuilt as Mexico City. Over the S p a i n h a d t w o m a j o r g o a l s f o r e x p l o r i n g a n d c o l o n i z i n g A m e r i c a . T h e S p a n i s h w a n t e d g o l d , a n d t h e y w a n t e d t o s p r e a d C h r i s t i a n i t y . C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s w a n t e d t o s a v e t h e s o u l s o f t h e “ h e a t h e n s , ” t h e i r w o r d f o r n o n C h r i s t i a n s . C lick to ad d n o tes 7 7 7 Click to add notes T he A zt e c s (th e Eur o pe a n te rm fo r the M e xic a ) w e re the m o st d e v e lo p e d ind ige no us pe o ple in A me r ica . T h ey ha d a ve ry co m p le x s o c ie ty an d bu ilt la r ge py ra m id te m p le s . H o w e ve r, th e y fo u ght a ga i nst m an y ne ig hbo r ing In dia n trib e s a nd p ra c tic e d hu ma n s a c r ific e . T h ei r c a pita l c ity w as c a lle d T e no c htitla n a nd was the l a r ge st c ity in N o r th A m e ric a . C o r te s be c a me a llie s w ith som e of th e lo c a l I ndia n trib e s w ho w e re e ne m ie s w ith the A zte c s. At fi rs t, the A zt e c em p eror M o n te z um a su rr e n de re d to C o rte s , a nd C o rte s a llo w e d M o n te z um a to re m a in in po w e r w hile Sp a nis h s ol die rs o c cu pie d th e c ity . L a te r, w h en C o r te s le ft the c ity to meet a no th e r S p a nis h e xp lo re r in M e xic o , the A zte c s r e b e l le d a nd k il le d M o nte z um a . C o rt e s e v e ntua ll y r e g a ine d c o ntr o l of the c ity . He d e st ro y e d mo s t of th e c ity a nd h ad it r e buil t as M e xic o C it y. O ve r the ne x t de ca d e , S pa ni sh s o ldie r s c o nqu e r e d m o st of t he Ind ia n p e o p le s t h ro ug ho ut C e ntra l a nd S o uth Am e ri ca , e xc e pt fo r B ra zil , w hic h w as c o lo niz e d by the Po rtu gu e s e . 8 8 8 On the left, a picture of human sacrifice by the Aztecs. On the right, a picture of their capital city Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City) C lick to ad d T h e A z t e c s ( t h e E u r o p e a n t e r m f o r t h e M e x i c a ) w e r e t h e m o s t d e v e l o p e d i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e i n A m e r i c a . T h e y h a d a v e r y c o m p l e x s o c i e t y a n d b u i l t l a r g e p y r a m i d t e m p l e s . H o w e v e r , t h e y f o u g h t a g a i n s t m a n y n e i g h b o r i n g I n d i a n t r i b e s a n d p r a c t i c e d h u m a n s a c r i f i c e . T h e i r c a p i t a l c i t y w a s c a l l e d T e n o c h t i t l a n a n d w a s t h e l a r g e s t c i t y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . C o r t e s b e c a m e a l l i e s w i t h s o m e o f t h e l o c a l I n d i a n t r i b e s w h o w e r e e n e m i e s w i t h t h e A z t e c s . A t f i r s t , t h e A z t e c e m p e r o r M o n t e z u m a s u r r e n d e r e d t o C o r t e s , a n d C o r t e s a l l o w e d M o n t e z u m a t o r e m a i n i n p o w e r w h i l e S p a n i s h s o l d i e r s o c c u p i e d t h e c i t y . L a t e r , w h e n C o r t e s l e f t t h e c i t y t o m e e t a n o t h e r S p a n i s h e x p l o r e r i n M e x i c o , t h e A z t e c s r e b e l l e d a n d k i l l e d M o n t e z u m a . C o r t e s e v e n t u a l l y r e g a i n e d c o n t r o l o f t h e c i t y . H e d e s t r o y e d m o s t o f t h e c i t y a n d h a d i t r e b u i l t a s M e x i c o C i t y . O v e r t h e n e x t d e c a d e , S p a n i s h s o l d i e r s c o n q u e r e d m o s t o f t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e s t h r o u g h o u t C e n t r a l a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a , e x c e p t f o r B r a z i l , w h i c h w a s c o l o n i z e d b y t h e P o r t u g u e s e . n o tes 8 8 8 On t he l e f t, a p i ctu re of a pic tur e of hum a n sa cr ifi ce by the A zte c s. th e ir c ap ita l c ity T e n oc hti tla n (p re se nt-d a y On t he M e xic o rig ht, C ity ) Click to add notes 9 9 9 •After the Spanish conquered the Aztec and Incan Empires, they established an outpost called St. Augustine in Florida in 1587 and sent priests to convert the Indians in the Southwest, in New Mexico. O n t h e l e f t , a p i c t u r e o f a p i c t u r e o f h u m a n s a c r i f i c e b y t h e A z t e c s . t h e i r c a p i t a l c i t y T e n o c h t i t l a n ( p r e s e n t d a y O n t h e M e x i c o r i g h t , C i t y ) C lick to ad d n o tes 9 9 9 • A f te r the Sp a nis h c o nqu e r e d the A zt e c a nd In ca n E m pir e s , the y e sta b lish e d an o ut po st c a lle d S t. A ugu stin e in F lo r ida in 1587 a nd s e nt pr ie s ts to c o nv e r t th e I nd ia ns in th e S ou thw e s t, in New M e xic o . Click to add notes 10 10 10 •Diseases. Remember Bubonic Plague—Europeans had been exposed to a lot of dangerous diseases that American Indians had not. This meant that even though many Europeans had previously died from these diseases, others had some resistance or immunity to them, which the Indians did not. •After the Spanish began colonizing the Americas, other countries became interested in trading and colonizing in America. However, it took these countries longer to establish a presence in America than it took Spain. France sent a few explorers to America and briefly colonized Quebec, but did not hold possess a lot of territory in America until the French settled Acadia in 1604 and Quebec in 1608. Later the French founded New Orleans in 1718. The Dutch settled territory they called New Amsterdam, which we know as New York • A f t e r t h e S p a n i s h c o n q u e r e d t h e A z t e c a n d I n c a n E m p i r e s , t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d a n o u t p o s t c a l l e d S t . A u g u s t i n e i n F l o r i d a i n 1 5 8 7 a n d s e n t p r i e s t s t o c o n v e r t t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e S o u t h w e s t , i n N e w M e x i c o . C lick to ad d n o tes 1 0 1 0 10 Click to add notes • D is e a se s . Re m e mb e r B ubo n ic P la gue — Eu ro p e a n s ha d be e n e xp os e d to a lo t of d a nge r ou s d ise a se s tha t A m e r ic a n I ndi a ns h ad n o t. Th is m e a nt t ha t e ve n th ou gh ma n y E uro p e a n s h ad pr e v io us ly di e d fro m th e s e d ise a se s, ot he rs ha d som e r e s is tan ce or im mu nity to th e m , w h ich the In dia n s di d no t. • A f te r the Sp a nis h be ga n co lo n izi ng th e A m e ri ca s, o the r c o unt rie s b e c a me in te r e ste d in tra d ing an d c o lo niz ing in A m e ri ca . H o w e ve r, it to o k the se c o untr ie s lo n ge r to e sta b lis h a pr e se nc e in A m e r ica t ha n it to o k Sp a in. F r a nc e s en t a fe w e x plo r e rs to A me ri ca an d br ie fly c o lo niz e d Q ue be c, b ut d id no t h o ld p o ss e s s a lo t of t e r rit or y in A m e ric a un til the F re nc h s e t tle d A ca d ia in 1 604 a nd Q u eb ec in 1608. L a te r the Fr e nc h fo u nde d New O r le a n s in 1718. T he D u tc h se ttle d t e rr ito r y the y ca ll e d N ew A m s te r da m , w hi ch we k n ow as New Y o rk C i ty. 11 11 11 On the left, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. They ruled Spain until Isabella died in 1504. On the right, their grandson became the King, Charles I, in 1516. He also became the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, the leader of all the small German kingdoms and protector of the Pope. Spain was the most powerful European nation throughout most of the sixteenth century. However, other European powers also wanted to find new wealth and power in the New World. C lick to ad d • D i s e a s e s . R e m e m b e r B u b o n i c P l a g u e — E u r o p e a n s h a d b e e n e x p o s e d t o a l o t o f d a n g e r o u s d i s e a s e s t h a t A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s h a d n o t . T h i s m e a n t t h a t e v e n t h o u g h m a n y E u r o p e a n s h a d p r e v i o u s l y d i e d f r o m t h e s e d i s e a s e s , o t h e r s h a d s o m e r e s i s t a n c e o r i m m u n i t y t o t h e m , w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s d i d n o t . • A f t e r t h e S p a n i s h b e g a n c o l o n i z i n g t h e A m e r i c a s , o t h e r c o u n t r i e s b e c a m e i n t e r e s t e d i n t r a d i n g a n d c o l o n i z i n g i n A m e r i c a . H o w e v e r , i t t o o k t h e s e c o u n t r i e s l o n g e r t o e s t a b l i s h a p r e s e n c e i n A m e r i c a t h a n i t t o o k S p a i n . F r a n c e s e n t a f e w e x p l o r e r s t o A m e r i c a a n d b r i e f l y c o l o n i z e d Q u e b e c , b u t d i d n o t h o l d p o s s e s s a l o t o f t e r r i t o r y i n A m e r i c a u n t i l t h e F r e n c h s e t t l e d A c a d i a i n 1 6 0 4 a n d Q u e b e c i n 1 6 0 8 . L a t e r t h e F r e n c h f o u n d e d N e w O r l e a n s i n 1 7 1 8 . t e r r i t o r y t h e y c a l l e d N e w A m s t e r d a m , w h i c h w e C i t y . n o tes T h e D u t c h s e t t l e d k n o w a s N e w Y o r k 1 1 1 1 11 On t he l e f t, K in g F e rd ina nd a nd Q u ee n I sa b e ll a . T he y r ule d S pa in u n til I sa b e ll a d ie d in 1504. On th e rig ht, th e ir gr a nds o n b ec am e t he K ing, C ha r le s I, in 151 6. He a l so be c am e th e H o ly Ro m a n Em pe ro r , C h a rle s V, the le ad e r of a ll the sm a ll G erm an k ing do m s an d p r o te cto r of the Po p e . S pa in w as the m o st po w e r fu l Eur o pe a n n a tio n t h ro ug ho ut m ost of the s ixte e nth c e ntu ry . H ow ev er, o the r E ur o pe a n po w e r s a ls o w a nte d to fi nd n ew w e a lth a nd p ow er in th e Ne w W o rld . Click to add notes 12 12 12 Why did it take England so long to colonize America? John Cabot, 1497 to Roanoke 1587? One reason: Internal instability in England because of the Protestant Reformation. O n t h e l e f t , K i n g F e r d i n a n d a n d Q u e e n I s a b e l l a . T h e y r u l e d S p a i n u n t i l I s a b e l l a d i e d i n 1 5 0 4 . O n t h e r i g h t , t h e i r g r a n d s o n b e c a m e t h e K i n g , C h a r l e s I , i n 1 5 1 6 . H e a l s o b e c a m e t h e H o l y R o m a n E m p e r o r , C h a r l e s V , t h e l e a d e r o f a l l t h e s m a l l G e r m a n k i n g d o m s a n d p r o t e c t o r o f t h e P o p e . S p a i n w a s t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l E u r o p e a n n a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t m o s t o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . H o w e v e r , o t h e r E u r o p e a n p o w e r s a l s o w a n t e d t o f i n d n e w w e a l t h a n d p o w e r i n t h e N e w W o r l d . C lick to ad d n o tes 1 2 1 2 12 Why d id it ta ke En gla n d so lo n g to c o lo niz e A m e ri ca ? J o hn 1497 to Ro a no k e 1587? One r e as o n: In te r na l i nsta b ility in b e c a use of th e P ro te sta n t Re fo r m at io n. C a bo t, E ngl a nd Click to add notes 13 13 13 The first permanent Protestant Reformation started in Germany in 1517 when a priest named Martin Luther posted 95 complaints against the Catholic Church. He did not intend to break away from the Catholic Church; he just wanted to reform some practices he thought were wrong. His followers and other people across Europe took the Reformation even further and split away from the Catholic Church to form new churches. In 1529, England’s King Henry VIII broke away from the Pope and formed his own church because the Pope would not grant him a divorce from his wife. This new church was the Church of England, or Anglican Church. It was the official religion of England. For decades after Henry’s death, England went back and forth between returning to Catholicism and continuing to create its own religion. This movement is very important because of W h y d i d i t t a k e E n g l a n d s o l o n g t o c o l o n i z e A m e r i c a ? J o h n 1 4 9 7 t o R o a n o k e 1 5 8 7 ? O n e r e a s o n : I n t e r n a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n b e c a u s e o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m a t i o n . C a b o t , E n g l a n d C lick to ad d n o tes 1 3 1 3 13 Click to add notes T he fir st pe rm a ne nt P ro te sta nt Re fo r ma ti o n s tar te d in Ge rm a ny in 1517 when a pr ie st n am e d M a r tin L uth e r po ste d 95 co m p la ints a ga i nst th e C a tho li c C hur ch . He did n ot int e n d to br e ak aw ay fro m th e C at ho lic C h ur ch ; he ju st w a n te d to re fo r m som e p ra c tic e s he t h ou gh t w ere w ro ng . H is fo llo w e rs an d o th e r pe o ple a c ro ss Eu ro p e to o k the R e fo r m a tio n e ve n fur the r a nd sp lit aw ay fro m th e C a tho lic C h ur ch to fo rm n ew c hu rc he s. In 1 529, En gla nd ’s K ing H e n ry V II I br o k e aw ay fr om th e Po pe a nd f or m e d his ow n c hu rc h b e c a us e th e Po p e w o u ld no t gra n t him a d ivo r ce fr o m his w ife . T his ne w ch ur ch w as the C hu rc h of Eng la nd, or A n g lic a n C hu r c h . It w as the o ff icia l r e li gio n of Eng la nd . Fo r de c ad e s a fte r H e nr y’s de a th, E ngl a nd w e nt ba c k a nd fo rth be tw e e n re tur nin g to C a th o lic ism a nd co n tinu ing to c re a te its ow n re lig io n. T hi s m o ve m e n t is ve ry im po rt a nt be c a use of r e li gio us gr o ups w ho la t e r le f t Eng la nd in o r de r to p ra c tic e th e i r r e li gio n w itho ut go ve rn m e n t inte r fe re nc e . 14 14 14 The political situation in England had stabilized somewhat after Elizabeth became queen in 1558, and she ruled England for fortyfive years. Under Elizabeth, the British began to pursue interests in America, almost 100 years after the Spanish. Also, in 1588, the British won a surprise victory in a naval battle against the Spanish armada. This was significant because the British now saw themselves as a potential naval power that could compete with Spain. This also encouraged England to explore and colonize America. b t v d n u Q T s k y ? a c i r e m o h W O I F p f q “ A ; w l ” 0 1 , C N B y g i v a e r p x d n s b m l o t u A 1 P h . 2 0 5 , c w ’ O C lick to ad d T h e f i r s t p e r m a n e n t P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m a t i o n s t a r t e d i n G e r m a n y i n 1 5 1 7 w h e n a p r i e s t n a m e d M a r t i n L u t h e r p o s t e d 9 5 c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . H e d i d n o t i n t e n d t o b r e a k a w a y f r o m t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ; h e j u s t w a n t e d t o r e f o r m s o m e p r a c t i c e s h e t h o u g h t w e r e w r o n g . H i s f o l l o w e r s a n d o t h e r p e o p l e a c r o s s E u r o p e t o o k t h e R e f o r m a t i o n e v e n f u r t h e r a n d s p l i t a w a y f r o m t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h t o f o r m n e w c h u r c h e s . I n 1 5 2 9 , E n g l a n d ’ s K i n g H e n r y V I I I b r o k e a w a y f r o m t h e P o p e a n d f o r m e d h i s o w n c h u r c h b e c a u s e t h e P o p e w o u l d n o t g r a n t h i m a d i v o r c e f r o m h i s w i f e . T h i s n e w c h u r c h w a s t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , o r A n g l i c a n C h u r c h . I t w a s t h e o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n o f E n g l a n d . F o r d e c a d e s a f t e r H e n r y ’ s d e a t h , E n g l a n d w e n t b a c k a n d f o r t h b e t w e e n r e t u r n i n g t o C a t h o l i c i s m a n d c o n t i n u i n g t o c r e a t e i t s o w n r e l i g i o n . T h i s m o v e m e n t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e o f r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s w h o l a t e r l e f t E n g l a n d i n o r d e r t o p r a c t i c e t h e i r r e l i g i o n w i t h o u t g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r f e r e n c e . n o tes 1 4 1 4 14 Click to add notes T he po li tica l situ a tio n in Eng la nd ha d s ta bi lize d s o me w h at a fte r E l iza b e th be ca m e que e n in 1558, a nd sh e r ule d Eng la nd for fo r tyfiv e ye a rs . Un de r E liza b e th , the B rit ish b e ga n to p urs ue inte r e s ts in A m e ric a , a lm o st 100 ye a rs a fte r the S pa nis h. A ls o , in 1 588, the B riti sh w on a su rp ris e v ic to ry in a n a va l b at tle ag a ins t the Sp a nis h a r ma d a . T his w as s igni fic an t be c au se the B rit ish no w sa w t h e m se lv e s as a p o te n tia l na v a l po w e r t ha t c o uld c o m pe te w ith S p a in. T h is a ls o e n co u ra g e d Eng la nd to e x plo r e an d c o lo niz e A m e ric a . 15 15 15 First English colony in America. Not the same as Roanoke, VA. When White returned, all the homes were empty and there was no sign of a struggle. Only the name “croatoan” carved in the side of a tree. No one knows what happened to the colonists. Killed by the Spanish? Starved? Went to live with neighboring Indian tribes? o h d n e w m f i r A t a c p , 0 1 b s y u v ’ l P O x 6 . 2 5 N 4 C B F Q T g I ; s e m A o c i r v d k y ? a h W n t “ ” u q C lick to ad d T h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n E n g l a n d h a d s t a b i l i z e d s o m e w h a t a f t e r E l i z a b e t h b e c a m e q u e e n i n 1 5 5 8 , a n d s h e r u l e d E n g l a n d f o r f o r t y f i v e y e a r s . U n d e r E l i z a b e t h , t h e B r i t i s h b e g a n t o p u r s u e i n t e r e s t s i n A m e r i c a , a l m o s t 1 0 0 y e a r s a f t e r t h e S p a n i s h . A l s o , i n 1 5 8 8 , t h e B r i t i s h w o n a s u r p r i s e v i c t o r y i n a n a v a l b a t t l e a g a i n s t t h e S p a n i s h a r m a d a . T h i s w a s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e t h e B r i t i s h n o w s a w t h e m s e l v e s a s a p o t e n t i a l n a v a l p o w e r t h a t c o u l d c o m p e t e w i t h S p a i n . T h i s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d E n g l a n d t o e x p l o r e a n d c o l o n i z e A m e r i c a . n o tes 1 5 1 5 15 F ir st En gli sh c o lo ny in A m e ri ca . N ot th e s am e as Ro a n o ke , VA. W h en W h ite re tur ne d, a ll the ho m e s w e re e m p ty an d th e r e w as no s ign of a s trug gle . O nly the n am e “c r oa t oa n ” c a rv e d in th e side of a tr e e . No o ne k no w s w ha t ha p pe ne d to th e c o lo nis ts . K ill e d by t he Spa n ish ? S t ar ve d ? W e nt to liv e w ith n e ig hb o rin g I ndi an tri be s? Click to add notes 16 16 16 •At the beginning of the 17th century England was at peace with Spain, so English colonization of North America could begin in full force. The Virginia Company was a private corporation that received permission from King James of England to form a colony in America. They named the first colony Virginia after the “Virgin Queen” Elizabeth, who had died in 1603. The first town built in Virginia was Jamestown, named after the King. Life in Jamestown was very difficult and many of the survivors died. The settlers were led by John Smith, who explored the surrounding area. At first, the local Indian chief Powhatan hoped to trade with the English, but he realized that the English would take all the land that they could. Many settlers died—at one point about 80%, and the future of the colony looked uncertain until a man named John Rolfe successfully y t m g d u v l a e r o n c s C N B Q T W 1 . 2 5 P ’ x O ; I F , 0 w b p f k q ” “ ? A i h F i r s t E n g l i s h c o l o n y i n A m e r i c a . N o t t h e s a m e a s R o a n o k e , V A . W h e n W h i t e r e t u r n e d , a l l t h e h o m e s w e r e e m p t y a n d t h e r e w a s n o s i g n o f a s t r u g g l e . O n l y t h e n a m e “ c r o a t o a n ” c a r v e d i n t h e s i d e o f a t r e e . N o o n e k n o w s w h a t h a p p e n e d t o t h e c o l o n i s t s . K i l l e d b y t h e S p a n i s h ? S t a r v e d ? W e n t t o l i v e w i t h n e i g h b o r i n g I n d i a n t r i b e s ? C lick to ad d n o tes 1 6 1 6 16 Click to add notes •A t t he be gin ning of the 1 7 th c e ntu ry Eng la nd w as at p eac e w ith S p a in, so Eng lis h c o lo niz a tio n of N o r th A m e ric a co uld b e g in in ful l f o r ce . T he V ir gin ia C o m pa n y w as a pri va te co r po r a tio n th at re ce iv e d p e r mi ssi o n fr o m K in g J a me s of Eng la nd to fo rm a c o lo ny in A m e ri ca . T he y na m e d the fir st c o lo ny V irg ini a a fte r the “V i rg in Q ue e n” E l iza b e th , w ho ha d die d in 1603. Th e f irs t to w n b uilt in V ir gin ia w as J a me st o w n, na m e d a fte r the K in g. L ife in J a m e s to w n w as ve ry d i ffic ult an d m a ny of the su r viv o rs d ie d. T he se ttl e r s w e re le d by J o hn S m ith, who e x plo r e d the su rr o und ing a re a . At fir st, the lo ca l I ndi an ch ie f Po w h ata n ho pe d to tra de w it h the En glis h, b ut he r e a liz e d tha t the Eng lis h w o uld ta k e a ll the la nd tha t th e y co u ld. M a ny se ttle rs die d — a t on e po int a b o ut 80% , a nd the futu re of the c o lo ny lo o ke d u nc e r ta in u ntil a m an na m e d J oh n R o lfe su cc e ss fully gr e w sm o k ing to ba cc o . T o ba c co b ec am e the mo st im po r ta nt an d p r o fita b le cr op gr o w n in V irg inia . Ro lf e a ls o m ar ri e d the In dia n ch ie f P o w h at a n’s d a ug hte r Po c a ho nt as , w hi ch im pro v e d c on diti o ns b e tw e e n the c o lo nis ts a nd the I ndi an s f or a fe w ye a r s. H o w e ve r, th e r e tw o ma jo r m a ss a cr e s in 16 22 a nd 16 44 w he n th e I nd ia ns a tta c ke d the co lo n ists . •F r o m t he be gin ning the c o lo ny w as a dm in iste re d by an a ss e m b ly c a lle d T he H o us e of B u rge s se s. T he m e m be rs of this a ss e m bl y w e re e le c te d by th e c o lo nis ts. T h is s ys te m w as fa r mo r e de mo c ra ti c th a n th e s ys te m of g o ve rn me n t ba c k h o me in Eng la nd . T he r e p re se nta tiv e sty le of go v e r nm e nt c o ntin ue d e ve n a fte r the K in g r e v o ke d t he ch a rte r an d de c la re d V ir gin ia a ro y a l c o lo ny . 17 17 17 Whereas the Virginia Colony started as a charter to a corporation, Maryland’s charter was granted to Cecilius Calvert, the Lord Baltimore, whose father had wanted to provide a safe place for English Catholics, who were persecuted back in England. I F n u Q a A m c t l p o r f e h T s i d W “ ; , 0 1 w b q ” y v O k ? y l A . 2 0 5 1 , w c r o p m e v a h t ’ n d i s u b P O g x C N B C lick to ad d • A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1 7 t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d w a s a t p e a c e w i t h S p a i n , s o E n g l i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a c o u l d b e g i n i n f u l l f o r c e . T h e V i r g i n i a C o m p a n y w a s a p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n f r o m K i n g J a m e s o f E n g l a n d t o f o r m a c o l o n y i n A m e r i c a . T h e y n a m e d t h e f i r s t c o l o n y V i r g i n i a a f t e r t h e “ V i r g i n Q u e e n ” E l i z a b e t h , w h o h a d d i e d i n 1 6 0 3 . T h e f i r s t t o w n b u i l t i n V i r g i n i a w a s J a m e s t o w n , n a m e d a f t e r t h e K i n g . L i f e i n J a m e s t o w n w a s v e r y d i f f i c u l t a n d m a n y o f t h e s u r v i v o r s d i e d . T h e s e t t l e r s w e r e l e d b y J o h n S m i t h , w h o e x p l o r e d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . A t f i r s t , t h e l o c a l I n d i a n c h i e f P o w h a t a n h o p e d t o t r a d e w i t h t h e E n g l i s h , b u t h e r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e E n g l i s h w o u l d t a k e a l l t h e l a n d t h a t t h e y c o u l d . M a n y s e t t l e r s d i e d — a t o n e p o i n t a b o u t 8 0 % , a n d t h e f u t u r e o f t h e c o l o n y l o o k e d u n c e r t a i n u n t i l a m a n n a m e d J o h n R o l f e s u c c e s s f u l l y g r e w s m o k i n g t o b a c c o . T o b a c c o b e c a m e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a n d p r o f i t a b l e c r o p g r o w n i n V i r g i n i a . R o l f e a l s o m a r r i e d t h e I n d i a n c h i e f P o w h a t a n ’ s d a u g h t e r P o c a h o n t a s , w h i c h i m p r o v e d c o n d i t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e c o l o n i s t s a n d t h e I n d i a n s f o r a f e w y e a r s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e t w o m a j o r m a s s a c r e s i n 1 6 2 2 a n d 1 6 4 4 w h e n t h e I n d i a n s a t t a c k e d t h e c o l o n i s t s . • F r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e c o l o n y w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a n a s s e m b l y c a l l e d T h e H o u s e o f B u r g e s s e s . T h e m e m b e r s o f t h i s a s s e m b l y w e r e e l e c t e d b y t h e c o l o n i s t s . T h i s s y s t e m w a s f a r m o r e d e m o c r a t i c t h a n t h e s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t b a c k h o m e i n E n g l a n d . T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t y l e o f g o v e r n m e n t c o n t i n u e d e v e n a f t e r t h e K i n g r e v o k e d t h e c h a r t e r a n d d e c l a r e d V i r g i n i a a r o y a l c o l o n y . n o tes 1 7 1 7 17 W h erea s the V ir gin ia C o lo n y st a rte d as a ch ar te r to a c o rp o ra tio n , M a ry la nd ’s c ha r te r w as gra n te d to C e ci lius C a lv e r t, th e L o rd B a ltim o re , w h os e fa the r h ad w a nte d to pro v ide a s af e p la ce fo r E n glis h C a tho lic s, w ho w e re pe rs e c ut e d b a ck in En gla nd . Click to add notes 18 18 18 •So far, we’ve mostly studied colonial settlement on the coast. However, life on the American frontier (the line between settled and unsettled areas) became more and more important. The other major power in America, Spain, wasn’t having a lot of success in its colonization of the lands north of Mexico. They hadn’t found much gold north of Mexico, and they weren’t able to establish successful long-term colonies in this region. Also, Indian rebellions had been more successful in the American West and took the Spanish years to subdue. •The Spanish were looking for gold and found plenty from Mexico to the south, but was this really a good thing? In the long-term analysis, the Spanish were so pre-occupied with finding gold that they didn’t consider the true value of gold. Gold was merely the way that Europeans represented wealth in their economy. It had little real value beyond being something they counted that represented the ...
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