French Grammar for Reference and Practice, A Complete (Booth).pdf - A COMPLETE FRENCH GRAMMAR FOR REFERENCE AND PRACTICE Trudie Maria Booth University

French Grammar for Reference and Practice, A Complete (Booth).pdf

This preview shows page 1 out of 499 pages.

Unformatted text preview: A COMPLETE FRENCH GRAMMAR FOR REFERENCE AND PRACTICE Trudie Maria Booth University Press of America,® Inc. Lanham • Boulder · New York · Toronto · Plymouth, UK Copyright © 2010 by University Press of America,® Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard Suite 200 Lanham, Maryland 20706 UPA Acquisitions Department (301) 459-3366 Estover Road Plymouth PL6 7PY United Kingdom All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America British Library Cataloging in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Control Number: 2009939712 ISBN: 978-0-7618-4971-1 (paperback: alk. paper) eiSBN: 978-0-7618-4972-8 9"' The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1992 Contents (Table des Matieres) Chapter 1 Acknowledgements vii Preface ix Numbers Cardinal numbers Ordinal numbers Approximate numbers Telling time Days, months, seasons, dates Fractions demi and moitie Chapter2 Chapter3 Chapter4 ChapterS 1 5 7 8 10 13 14 The Present Indicative 17 Regular verbs Verbs ending in -er Verbs with spelling changes Verbs ending in -ir Verbs ending in -re The negative form The interrogative form Irregular verbs The uses of the present indicative The close future and the recent past Problem verbs Idiomatic expressions Impersonal verbs 17 17 19 22 22 23 23 24 29 30 31 37 44 Pronominal Verbs 47 Regular pronominal verbs Irregular pronominal verbs The use of pronominal verbs with parts of the body Reciprocal verbs Pronominal constructions with a passive meaning 47 50 52 The Imperative 55 Regular forms of the imperative The negative imperative Irregular forms of the imperative The imperative of pronominal verbs 55 56 56 57 The Passe Compose 59 The passe compose of verbs conjugated with avoir The passe compose of verbs conjugated with etre The passe compose of verbs conjugated with avoir and etre The passe compose of pronominal verbs The uses of the passe compose 59 64 53 53 65 66 69 Contents iv Chapter 6 Chapter7 Chapter 8 Chapter9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 The Imperfect 71 The formation of the imperfect The uses of the imperfect The imperfect versus the passe compose 71 73 The Pluperfect and the Passe Simple 81 The formation of the pluperfect The uses of the pluperfect The passe simple The formation of the passe simple The uses of the passe simple The passe anterieur 81 82 83 83 87 88 The Future Tenses 89 77 89 The formation of the simple future The uses of the simple future The close future The formation of the future perfect The uses of the future perfect 94 95 96 The Conditional 97 The formation of the present conditional The uses of the present conditional The formation of the past conditional The uses of the past conditional Tense sequences in conditional sentences 97 99 103 105 106 The Subjunctive 109 The present subjunctive of regular verbs The present subjunctive of irregular verbs The past subjunctive The uses of the subjunctive The subjunctive in the main clause The Imperfect subjunctive The pluperfect subjunctive 110 111 116 117 131 133 134 Personal Pronouns 135 Subject pronouns Direct object pronouns Indirect object pronouns The pronoun y Idiomatic expressions with y The pronoun en Idiomatic expressions with en Double object pronouns Disjunctive pronouns 135 136 141 144 145 147 150 152 156 Negative Expressions 163 Forms The position of negative expressions The combination of negative expressions Ne ... que The ne pleonastique 163 174 175 176 180 92 v Contents The Infinitive 181 The present infinitive The past infinitive The negative infinitive The uses of the infinitive The infinitive as the object of a verb Causative faire The infinitive as the object of an adjective The infinitive as the object of a noun 181 181 182 183 185 191 192 194 The Present Participle 195 The formation ofthe present participle The uses of the present participle The gerund 195 196 199 The Passive Voice 203 The formation of the passive voice The uses of the passive voice 203 206 The Articles 209 The forms of the definite article The uses of the definite article The forms of the indefinite article The uses of the indefinite article The forms of the partitive article The uses of the partitive article 209 212 219 219 223 224 The Noun 233 The gender of nouns The plural of nouns 233 253 Chapter 18 Problem Nouns 263 Chapter 19 The Descriptive Adjective 279 Masculine and feminine singular forms The plural forms of the descriptive adjective The position of the descriptive adjective Translation difficulties 279 284 287 291 Adverbs 295 Adverbs stemming from adjectives Adverbs not stemming from adjectives Adjectives used adverbially The position of the adverb Proverbs and expressions 295 298 304 304 309 The Comparative and the Superlative 311 The comparative of adjectives The comparative of adverbs The comparative of nouns The comparative of verbs The superlative of adjectives The superlative of adverbs The superlative of nouns The superlative of verbs Idiomatic expressions 311 314 317 318 323 325 326 326 327 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter20 Chapter21 vi Contents Questions 329 Questions asking for a yes or no answer Questions asking for specific information 329 331 Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns 345 The forms of the possessive adjectives The uses of the possessive adjectives Proverbs and expressions The forms of the possessive pronouns The uses of the possessive pronouns 345 348 349 354 354 Relative Pronouns 357 Relative pronouns with a specific antecedent Relative pronouns without a specific antecedent 357 366 Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns 373 The forms of demonstrative adjectives The forms of demonstrative pronouns Invariable demonstrative pronouns 373 375 377 Prepositions 385 Simple prepositions Compound prepositions de en dans sur chez pour par avec sans contre entre Prepositions with verbs Prepositions with geographical names 385 386 392 396 401 405 409 411 412 414 415 417 418 418 421 423 Conjunctions 431 Coordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions 431 433 Chapter28 Indefinite Adjectives, Adverbs and Pronouns 437 Chapter29 Direct Speech and Indirect Speech 453 Declarative sentences in indirect speech The imperative in indirect speech Indirect questions Change of expressions of time in indirect speech 453 455 455 458 False Cognates 461 Appendix: Verbs+ Infinitive 471 French-English glossary English-French glossary 473 477 Index 485 Chapter 22 Chapter23 Chapter24 Chapter25 Chapter 26 a. Chapter27 Chapter30 Acknowledgements I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to all who have supported me throughout the preparation of this book, especially the following: My friends and colleagues Sylvain Avenel and Brice Montaner for their valuable comments and suggestions, the author and linguist Nicole Vallee for her marvelous contributions, the tireless proofreaders Danielle Jolicoeur, Emily Mannix, Margaret Hardy, Katherine Braun and Joseph Horlacher, my daughter Andrea for the wonderful advice she sent to me from her home in France, Brian Cotlove who assisted me with his technological expertise, and all my enthusiastic students whose excellent questions and (yes!) mistakes, contributed to the content of this grammar book. I am especially grateful to Samantha Kirk, acquisitions editor at University Press of America, who never got tired of my e-mails and offered help whenever I needed assistance in a prompt and exceptionally efficient manner. Thank you so much, Samantha! It was a pleasure to work with you on this project. Preface As the title indicates, A Complete French Grammar for Reference and Practice is a comprehensive grammar with readings and exercises which allow learners to practice newly acquired knowledge and thereby refine their writing, reading and speaking skills. Since this manual describes every aspect of French grammar more thoroughly than most other grammar books, it is of considerable length. This book first reviews the basic grammar concepts and then clearly explains the more complicated structures of the language of Moliere. It can be used as a classroom text at the intermediate and advanced levels, as well as for self-study and reference. The text is intended to be a reliable source of information and a workbook for all those Anglophone students who want to speak and write French correctly. In order to facilitate comprehension, explanations are given in English and all example sentences are translated into English as well. In addition, grammatical terminology is clearly defined so that the student will not have to guess the meaning of terms such as relative pronouns, direct and indirect objects or pronominal verbs. Useful current words and expressions as well as cultural information about France are incorporated in the examples and exercises in order to increase the students' cultural competence and to give them the opportunity to enrich their vocabulary while at the same time learning new grammatical concepts. The numerous oral and written exercises include translations, suggestions for communicative activities with a partner, as well as topics for written compositions. Since there is a wide variety of exercises, teachers and students will be able to choose what best corresponds to their needs. Typical errors made by Anglophone speakers due to the influence of English (such as 'je cherche pour mon stylo', 'je telephone rna mere', 'j'entre Ia chambre', or 'je te veux venir') are pointed out throughout the book and, the goal being accuracy, many opportunities are given to eliminate these common mistakes. At the end of most of the chapters, sections entitled 'Translation Difficulties' deal with expressions and structures that cannot be translated literally from English into French, and indicate their idiomatic French equivalents. Whenever appropriate, poems and other authentic French texts (such as a fairy tale and an excerpt from 'Le Petit Nicolas') illustrate the grammar aspects discussed in a given chapter. And when it is helpful, phonetic transcriptions (using the symbols of the International Phonetic Association) show the correct pronunciation of difficult words. A Complete French Grammar for Reference and Practice is divided into 30 chapters. The first chapter is devoted to numbers and presents clock time, dates and related items. In my intermediate and advanced French classes, I always review numerals first, in order to give the students confidence (since they are familiar with this material already), and also to reinforce their knowledge of numerals, as well as help them avoid common mistakes such as 'sur lundi' or 'le troisieme de mai.' The second chapter deals with the present indicative (forms and use) of regular and irregular verbs, gives lists of common idiomatic expressions and treats 'problem verbs', i.e., those English verbs which have several equivalents in French that cannot be used interchangeably (e.g. to spend= passer and depenser; to leave =partir, quitter, /aisser). Chapter 2 also describes impersonal verbs and shows how to use them correctly. The third chapter examines pronominal verbs and the fourth looks at the imperative. Chapters 5-7 are devoted to the past tenses and chapters 8-9 to the future and conditional. Chapter I 0 focuses on the subjunctive and chapter 11 on personal pronouns. The remaining chapters deal with nouns and 'problem nouns', the present participle, the passive voice, indirect speech, and all other aspects of French grammar, such as articles, adjectives and adverbs, possessives and demonstratives, negative expressions, prepositions, conjunctions, the infinitive, etc. The last chapter is devoted to false cognates (also called 'faux amis' or false friends), i.e., to those French words which have a similar spelling as English words but not the same meaning (e.g. Ia librairie =the bookstore, NOT the library). This will remind the reader that 'attendre' does not mean 'to attend', and that 'actuellement' does not translate 'actually'. An English-French and FrenchEnglish glossary is provided, in which the student can look up unfamiliar words without having to consult a dictionary. Finally, there is a user-friendly detailed index that will allow learners to rapidly find the information they are looking for. An answer key is available through the author. It is hoped that this grammar book will be a useful reference and practice tool for students and teachers alike, and that it will help learners acquire proficiency in oral and written French. Grammar does not have to be boring. Studying it can be fun and will be particularly rewarding when it leads to an accurate usage of the language, to successful communication without misunderstandings, and to encouraging compliments by native French speakers. Abbreviations used in this book are adj. adjective adv. adverb e.g. for example fam. familiar, informal language fam. (in exercises) familiar: use tu to translate you f. feminine fern. feminine fig. figurative sense i.e. that is, that is to say indic. indicative inf. infinitive jur. in a legal context ling. linguistic (referring to language) lit. literally (indicating a literal translation of a French expression or sentence) m. masculine masc. masculine p. page plur. or pl. plural pol. (in exercises) polite: use vous to translate you prov. proverb qqch quelque chose (something) qqn quelqu'un (somebody) sb somebody sing. singular sth something subj. subjunctive vs versus Symbols used in this book are a slash I to indicate an alternative an arrow .... to indicate a transformation a single underscore_ to indicate a missing letter or word an asterisk * to indicate an additional comment Chapter 1 Numbers, Clock time, Days, Months, Seasons and Dates A. Cardinal numbers (les nombres cardinaux) zero un deux trois quatre cinq six sept huit neuf dix 41 42 43 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 onze douze treize quatorze quinze seize dix-sept dix-huit dix-neuf vingt 51 52 53 54 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 vingtet un vingt-deux vingt-trois vingt-quatre vingt-cinq vingt-six vingt-sept vingt-huit vingt-neuf trente 61 62 63 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 trente et un trente-deux tren te-trois trente-quatre trente-cinq trente-six trente-sept trente-huit trente- neuf quarante 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 40 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 55 56 57 58 59 60 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 quarante et un quarante-deux quarante-trois quarante-quatre quarante-cinq quarante-six quarante-sept quarante-huit quarante-neuf cinquante 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 quatre-vingt-un quatre-vingt-deux quatre-vingt-trois quatre-vingt-quatre quatre-vingt-cinq quatre-vingt-six quatre-vingt-sept quatre-vingt-huit quatre-vingt-neuf quatre-vingt-dix cinquante et un cinquante-deux cinquante-trois cinquante-quatre cinquante-cinq cinquante-six cinquante-sept cinquante-huit cinquante-neuf soixante 91 92 93 94 95 96 98 99 100 quatre-vingt-onze quatre-vingt-douze quatre-vingt-treize quatre-v ingt-quatorze quatre-vingt-quinze quatre-vingt-seize quatre-vingt-dix-sept quatre-vingt-dix-huit quatre-vingt-dix-neuf cent soixante et un soixante-deux soixante-trois soixante-quatre soixante-cinq soixante-six soixante-sept soixante-huit soixante-neuf soixante-dix 101 102 120 199 cent un cent deux cent vingt cent quatre-vingt-dix-neuf 200 201 302 400 deux cents deux cent un trois cent deux quatre cents 500 600 700 800 900 cinq cents six cents sept cents huit cents neuf cents l 000 l 001 1 100 1 200 mille mille un mille cent (onze cents) mille deux cents (douze cents) soixante et onze soixante-douze soixante-treize soixante-quatorze soixante-quinze soixante-seize soixante-dix-sept soixante-dix-huit soixante-dix-neuf quatre-vingts 97 A Complete French Grammar 2 1 900 2000 mille neuf cents (dix-neuf cents) deux mille 1 000000 2 000000 un million deux millions 1 000000000 3 000 000000 un milliard (English: a billion) trois milliards 1 000 000 000 000 un billion (English: a trillion) Note: - Most cardinal numbers are invariable, i.e., they do not change. les treize_ premiers chapitres - - Un becomes une (even if it is part of a compound number) before a feminine noun, except if the feminine noun precedes the number. unefemme vingt et une maisons a Ia page un l'annee 2001 (deux mille un) Cent gets an s in the plural. trois cents voitures deux cents cinq cents millions Except - if a number (other than million, milliard or billion) follows cinq cent_ douze - in dates en dix-huit cent_ in (the year) 1800 - if a multiple of cent follows the noun it describes l'an 600 (six cent_) - Mille never has an sin the plural. trois mille_ - dix mille_ dollars cinq mille_ deux Contrary to English, cent and mille are not preceded by un. cent one hundred - Ia salle 800 (huit cent_) mille one thousand Million and milliard • gets in the plural trois millions d'habitants deux milliards de dollars This plurals remains, even if another number follows. 2 000 340 • deux millions trois cent quarante are preceded by un (like in English) un million one million • un milliard one billion take de before the following noun un million de dollars un milliard d'habitants 3 Numbers - Quatre-vingts loses its s • when another number follows quatre-vingt_-trois • if it follows the noun it describes in the eighties dans les annees quatre-vingt page quatre-vingt - There is a hyphen between tens and ones except when et is used. trente-cinq quarante et un - Et is used in the following numbers [without a hyphen]: 21 vingt et un 31 trente et un 61 soixante et un 71 soixante et onze 41 quarante et un 51 cinquante et un - Et is not used • in the numbers 81 (quatre-vingt-un) and 91 (quatre-vingt-onze) [there are hyphens] • between hundreds and tens or hundreds and ones [there are no hyphens] cent un trois cent dix • between thousands and hundreds, thousands and tens or thousands and ones [there are no hyphens] deux mille trois cents mille un - one hundred and one three hundred and ten two thousand and three hundred one thousand and one Between 1000 and 2000, years in dates can be expressed in two different ways. 1856 mille huit cent cinquante-six 1996 mille neuf cent quatre-vingt-seize - In French, one cannot omit the word hundred in a date as one does in English. en mille neuf cent quarante-quatre - or: dix-huit cent cinquante-six or: dix-neuf cent quatre-vingt-seize in nineteen forty-four In Belgium and Switzerland, the numbers 70, 80 and 90 are not the same as in France. 70 = septante 90 =nonante 80 = octante - When written by hand, the 7 has a crossbar in French: - In French, +. • a space is used to separate hundreds from thousands and thousands from millions (English uses a comma.) French: 3 245 000 • English: 3, 245,000 (three million two hundred and forty five thousand) a comma is used to separate whole numbers from decimals (English uses a decimal point.) French: 3, 50 (trois virgule cinquante) French: 0, 5 (zero virgule cinq) - English: 3. 50 English:0.5 Contrary to English, cardinal numbers are used in dates and to designate rulers, except for the first. le 3 (trois) avril the third of April le 1er (premier) mars the first of March Louis XIV (Louis Quatorze)* Louis the Fourteenth Napoleon Ier (Premier)* Napoleon the First * Note that with titles of rulers, French does not use the article (the) before the number. A Complete French Grammar 4 - Unlike in English, cardinal numbers precede the adjective. the last two years the next ten days the other three students les deux dernieres annees les dix prochains jours les trois autres eleves Proverbs and expressions Une fois n'est pas coutume. One time doesn't count. Just once won't hurt. Un tiens vaut mieux que deux tu l'auras. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (tous I toutes) les deux both joindre les deux bouts to make ends meet etre haut comme trois pommes to be very short (person) huitjours (= une semaine) a week (lit.: eight days) quinze jours (=deux semaines) two ...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture