Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Bonding General Concepts 13.1 Types...

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Chapter 13- Bonding : General Concepts 13.1 Types of Chemical Bonds What is a Chemical Bond? -We define bonds as forced that hold groups of atoms together and make the atoms function as a unit. Bond Energy-The energy required to break the bond Various types of Chemical Bonds: Ionic Bonding/Ionic Compound- Are formed when an atom that loses electrons relatively easily reacts with an atoms that has a high affinity for electrons, Metal reacts with Nonmetal. Coulomb's Law: -Used to calculate the repulsive energy when two like-charged ions are brought together. How does a bonding forced develop between two identical atoms? -For example, the H2 molecule. There are two unfavorable energy terms, proton-proton repulsion and electron-electron repulsion, and one favorable term, proton-electron attraction. Under what conditions will the H2 molecule be favored instead of being separated? Well, it lies in nature's strong tendency to achieve that lowest possible energy. Therefore, a bond will form if the system can lower its total energy in the process. The hydrogen atom must assume the positions that give the lowest possible energy; to minimize the sum of the positive (repulsive) energy terms and the negative(attractive) terms) Bond Length-The distance at which the energy is minimum Bond in terms of Forces: The simultaneous attraction for each electron by the two proton generates a force that pulls that protons toward each other. This attractive force just balances the proton-proton and electron-electron repulsive forces at the distance corresponding to the bond length. Covalent Bonding-Two identical atoms share electrons equally. Polar Covalent Bonds-The atoms are not so different that electrons are completely transferred but are different enough so that unequal sharing results. Electrons in the bonds are not shared equally. One atoms will have a stronger attraction for the shared electrons.
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13.2 Electronegativity Electronegativity-The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself. The most widely accepted method for determining electronegativity values is Linus
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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Bonding General Concepts 13.1 Types...

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