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Chemistry_Honors_Final_Review - Chemistry Honors Final...

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Chemistry Honors Final Review 1) Describe the electronegativity [measure of how easily something attracts electrons] of: active metal: lowactive non-metal: high transitional metal : medium 2) The shape of a molecule is: - tetrahedral: 4 atoms bonded to central atom [Ex. CH 4 ] - bent: 2 atoms bonded to central atom; 3 total [Ex. H 2 O] - pyramid : 3 atoms bonded to central atom [Ex. NH 3 ] - linear : straight line, 2 or 1 bonded to central [Ex. CO 2 ] 3) Identify the process: - endothermic : energy is absorbed - exothermic : energy is released - solvation : dissolving process [solute particles separate from solid, breakdown of particles (solvent expands), bonding of solute to solvent] - hydration : solvation with H 2 O as the solvent - hydrates : atom or molecule with water bonded to it 4) Identify the chemical reactions: - reduction : gains electrons - oxidation : lose electrons - decomposition : breakdown of products, ( analysis ) - composition : combining reactants 5) How can a substance have several different oxidation states? A substance can lose different numbers of electrons. An example is Carbon: +2, +4, -4 6) How is the radius affected when atoms turn to ions? When atoms to positive ions (gain protons), the radius is smaller because the atom is losing electrons. When atoms turn to negative ions (gain electrons), the radius is larger because the gaining of electrons makes the electron cloud bigger. 7) Define: - cation : positive ion - anion : negative ion - valence electrons : electrons that can be lost, gained, shared when forming compounds - atomic kernel : all protons, neutrons, and electrons except the valence electrons 8) Define : - evaporating : liquid gas, solid liquid - condensing : gas liquid - melting : solid liquid - freezing : liquid gas 1
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- subliming : gas solid, solid gas - boiling : equilibrium vapor pressure > atmospheric pressure 9) When changing state, name the processes that are exothermic and which are endothermic. Exothermic : freezing, condensing Endothermic: boiling, evaporating 10) Define VSEPR - Electron pair repulsion is evident in which molecule? V alence S hell E lectron P air R epulsion, it is the even distribution of electron pairs and determines the shape of the molecule. Example is CO 2 O-----C-----O 11) Define hybridization : the combining of orbitals to make orbitals of equal energy - 1sp, sp 2 , sp 3 , sp 2 d 2 are all hybrids - 1s 2 1p 1 is not a hybrid 12) crystal system: - metallic : sea of electrons (results from attraction between metal atoms and surrounding electrons) [Ex. Cu] - ionic : transfer of electrons [Ex. NaCl] - covalent molecular : covalent compounds bonded together by dispersion forces [Ex. wax] - covalent network : continuous bonding between adjacent atoms [Ex. diamond] 13) Define: - adhesion : attraction between unlike atoms [Ex. water molecules---tube molecules] - cohesion : attraction between like atoms [ex. water---water] - surface tension : attraction between surface atoms which decreases to the maximum surface area - gravity : attraction of all atoms - Van Der Waal forces : a. instantaneous dipole : a temporary dipole (electrons move to one side) [Ex.
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Chemistry_Honors_Final_Review - Chemistry Honors Final...

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