English Study Guide

English Study Guide - English Study Guide Unit 1 part 1 The...

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English Study Guide Unit 1 part 1 The Earth on Turtle’s Back • When Grizzlies Walked Upright • from The Navajo Origin Legend • from The Iroquois Constitution Onondaga As one of the original five member nations, the Onondaga were an influential force in the Iroquois Confederation, a league of Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans in what is now the northeastern United States. The Onondaga lived in what is now central New York State, in villages of wood-and-bark long houses occupied by related families. The Onondaga were originally from Canada, where they acquired the French language. They practiced hospitality toward all people and did not believe in fighting. Following the breakup of the Iroquois Confederation after the American Revolution, factions of Onondaga scattered to various parts of the country, but the majority returned to their ancestral valley in New York where the Onondaga reservation now exists. Onondaga Summary “The Earth on the Turtle’s Back” tells of a time before the Earth existed. It explains how the Earth was brought out of the water and how life on Earth began. Modoc The Modoc once lived in villages in the area of Oregon and Northern California, where they farmed, fished, and hunted. They also had a highly developed method of weaving. Though each village was independent and had its own leaders, in times of war they would band together. In the mid-nineteenth century, the Modoc were forced onto a reservation in Oregon. A band of Modoc, under the leadership of a subchief known as Captain Jack, later fled the reservation. The result was several years of hostilities with United States troops and the eventual relocation of Captain Jack’s followers to Oklahoma. They were later allowed to return to the Oregon reservation, since dissolved. Modoc Summary “When Grizzlies Walked Upright” tells how the daughter of the Chief of the Sky Spirits came to Earth and married a grizzly bear. Their children became the first Indians. Navajo Today, the Navajo nation is the largest Native American nation in the United States and has more than 100,000 members. Many live on the Navajo reservation, which covers 24,000 square miles of Arizona, Utah, and New Mexico. Fierce warriors and hunters, the ancient Navajo settled in the Southwest about 1,000 years ago and eventually intermarried with the peaceful Pueblo people, who taught them to weave and raise crops. In 1864, after decades of fighting off encroaching American settlers, the Navajo were driven from their territory by the United States Army. They were
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eventually allowed to return to a reservation on Navajo land. Many Navajo still carry on native customs, living in earth-and-log structures and practicing the tribal religion. Navajo
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English Study Guide - English Study Guide Unit 1 part 1 The...

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