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Glycogen Metabolism (Revised)

Glycogen Metabolism (Revised) - Chapter 18 Glycogen...

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Chapter 18 Glycogen Metabolism
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Glycogen Branched glucose homopolymer 100-400 Å cytoplasmic granules 1-2% in muscle and <10% in liver Why glycogen (instead of fat) as energy storage? – Rapid utilization of glycogen in muscle – Aerobic metabolism of fat – Fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose in animal cells
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Structure of glycogen
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Enzymes for the glycogen breakdown Glycogen phosphorylase (or phosphorylase): Glycogen (n residues) + Pi glycogen (n-1 residues) + G1P Glycogen debranching enzyme – Branch removal – Hydrolysis of α (1 6) glycosidic bond to generate glucose Phosphoglucomutase: G1P G6P (directly used for glycolysis in muscle and hydrolyzed to glucose in liver)
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Glycogen phosphorylase • Homodimer • Allosteric regulation (-) ATP, G6P and glucose (+) AMP Phosphorylation at Ser-14 – Phosphoenzyme: phosphorylase a (more active) – Dephosphoenzyme: phosphorylase b (less active)
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Reaction of glycogen phosphorylase
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Structure of glycogen phosphorylase
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Phosphorylase reaction mechanism
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Glycogen debranching enzyme
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Phosphoglucomutase
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G6P Direct use in glycolysis or pentose phosphate pathway G6P hydrolysis system in the liver – G6P translocase: G6P transport from cytosol to ER – Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase): Hydrolysis of G6P to glucose in ER G6P + H
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