Glycolysis - Chapter 17 Glycolysis Major pathways of...

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Chapter 17 Glycolysis
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Major pathways of glucose metabolism
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Glycolysis Common metabolic pathway conserved throughout almost all living organisms Conversion of glucose (C6) to two pyruvate (C3) 10 enzymatic reactions The generation of 2 ATP and 2 NADH per glucose Glucose + 2NAD + + 2ADP + 2P i 2Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2ATP + 2H 2 O + 4H +
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Glycolytic pathway overview
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Chemical strategy of glycolysis Phosphoryl transfer to the glucose Conversion of phosphorylated intermediates to “high-energy” compounds ATP synthesis coupled with the phosphate hydrolysis of the reactive substances Stage I (Reactions 1-5) – Consumption of 2 ATPs Stage II (Reaction 6-10) – Generation of 4 ATPs
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Recycling of NAD+ Homolactic fermentation under anaerobic condition in muscle: reduction of pyruvate to lactate by NADH Alcoholic fermentation under anaerobic condition in yeast: decarboxylation of pyruvate to CO 2 and acetaldehyde (and its subsequent reduction to ethanol by NADH) Aerobic oxidation : mitochondrial oxidation of each NADH to NAD+ yields three ATPs
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Hexokinase (HK)
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Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI)
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Mechanism of phosphoglucose isomerase ketose aldose
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Phosphofructokinase (PFK) Significant role in the control of glycolysis
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Aldolase
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Base-catalyzed retro aldol condensation
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