Chapter1 - 01-R3868 10:08 AM Page 1 CHAPTER INTRODUCTION...

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INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS I n this introductory chapter, we present the basic concepts commonly used in the analysis of fluid flow. We start this chapter with a discussion of the phases of matter and the numerous ways of classification of fluid flow, such as viscous versus inviscid regions of flow , internal versus exter- nal flow , compressible versus incompressible flow , laminar versus turbulent flow , natural versus forced flow , and steady versus unsteady flow . We also discuss the no-slip condition at solid–fluid interfaces and present a brief his- tory of the development of fluid mechanics. After presenting the concepts of system and control volume , we review the unit systems that will be used. 1 CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVES When you finish reading this chapter, you should be able to n Understand the basic concepts of fluid mechanics n Recognize the various types of fluid flow problems encountered in practice Schlieren image showing the thermal plume produced by Professor Cimbala as he welcomes you to the fascinating world of Fuid mechanics. Michael J. Hargather and Brent A. Craven, Penn State Gas Dynamics Lab. Used by Permission.
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1–1 n INTRODUCTION Mechanics is the oldest physical science that deals with both stationary and moving bodies under the influence of forces. The branch of mechanics that deals with bodies at rest is called statics , while the branch that deals with bodies in motion is called dynamics . The subcategory fluid mechanics is defined as the science that deals with the behavior of fluids at rest ( fluid statics ) or in motion ( fluid dynamics ), and the interaction of fluids with solids or other fluids at the boundaries. Fluid mechanics is also referred to as fluid dynamics by considering fluids at rest as a special case of motion with zero velocity (Fig. 1–1). Fluid mechanics itself is also divided into several categories. The study of the motion of fluids that are practically incompressible (such as liquids, especially water, and gases at low speeds) is usually referred to as hydrody- namics . A subcategory of hydrodynamics is hydraulics , which deals with liq- uid flows in pipes and open channels. Gas dynamics deals with the flow of fluids that undergo significant density changes, such as the flow of gases through nozzles at high speeds. The category aerodynamics deals with the flow of gases (especially air) over bodies such as aircraft, rockets, and automo- biles at high or low speeds. Some other specialized categories such as meteo- rology , oceanography , and hydrology deal with naturally occurring flows. What Is a Fluid? You will recall from physics that a substance exists in three primary phases: solid, liquid, and gas. (At very high temperatures, it also exists as plasma.) A substance in the liquid or gas phase is referred to as a fluid . Distinction between a solid and a fluid is made on the basis of the substance’s ability to resist an applied shear (or tangential) stress that tends to change its shape.
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Chapter1 - 01-R3868 10:08 AM Page 1 CHAPTER INTRODUCTION...

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