Chapter7 - Chapter7 Aka: The Most Difficult, Most Important...

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Chapter 7 Aka: The Most Difficult, Most Important Chapter You Will Ever Read in Your Entire Lives! Muahahahahaha!
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Contextual Background for Chapter 7 The Goal of Science is to Create Models of Reality  that are as Accurate as Possible.  To do this, we devote a considerable amount of effort to  making sure that we are observing and measuring what we  think we are. Chapters 4-6 focused on sharpening the accuracy and  precision of our concepts, variables and measurement  tools Now we need to focus on Over-Coming Other  Obstacles to Understanding Reality Overgeneralizations Biased Observations
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What is Sampling Theory? To Over-Come these Obstacles, we apply  Sampling  Theory . In short, Sampling Theory is a tool for limiting the  possibility of creating an inaccurate model of reality  because we only observed a few, unrepresentative cases Sampling Theory works by detailing the degree to which a  sample accurately represents the distribution of a measure  in a population. Sampling theory also works by detailing for us the steps  we need to take to make sure our sample reflects the  population as well. 
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Key Concepts: Set 1 The Population The theoretical totality of all cases  subject to analysis, as specified by  the research question. A person’s  yearly income  is  positively related to the number  of  status characteristics  they  posses.  Scope Conditions natural-born  U.S. citizens who are over 18 and  living in the United States of  America in the year 2010 Gender: Male 1, Female 0 Race: White 1, Person of Color 0 Straight: Yes 1, No 0 > H.S. Education: Yes 1, No 0 Population Parameter A summary description of a  given attribute found within  the population. Average Yearly income Average Number of Status  Characteristics
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Key Concepts: Set 2 Often times it is too expensive, too difficult, or impossible  to measure the entire population. Adult U.S. Population in 2008 was roughly 229 million people. 
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Chapter7 - Chapter7 Aka: The Most Difficult, Most Important...

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