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Chapter8 - experiment – How did opinions change Post...

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Chapter 8 Controlled Experiments.
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Recall From Earlier Chapters One Goal of Science is to Create Causal Explanations of Reality. Significant obstacles to creating these explanations are: The threat of spurious relationships Establishing Proper Time Order Determining Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
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Controlled Experiments Controlled Experiments are an Important Research Tool for Dealing with these Obstacles. Why? Minimize outside influences. Ability to directly observe interactions Ability to compare consequences of exposure to nonexposure
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Elements of a Controlled Experiment Key Components Experimental Group vs. Controlled Group Experimental group -  A group of subjects to whom an experimental stimulus is administered. Control group -  A group of subjects to whom no experimental stimulus is administered and who resemble the experimental group in all other respects.
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Pretest, Exposure to Stimulus, Posttest
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Internal Validity Historical events may occur during the course of the
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Unformatted text preview: experiment – How did opinions change Post LA-Riots or Post-9-11? • Maturation of the subjects. – People Change over Time • Testing and retesting can influence behavior – People can begin to figure out the test • Instrumentation: – Difference in Pretest and Postest, Skill in Experimenter Changes • Statistical regression of subjects starting out in extreme positions. – No where to go but up (or down). • Selection biases. • Experimental mortality – subjects drop out of the study before it's completed. • Demoralized control group subjects. – Control group begins to act differently External Validity • Can you correctly extrapolate from your study to the larger population? – Unlike Selection Biases or Non-Random Samples, Problems arise from the nature of the experiment – Can the pretest bias peoples responses? If so, the relationship would not hold in the population because there would be no pretest....
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