Lecture3 - Chapter 3: Research Ethics Why Do We Need...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3: Research Ethics Why Do We Need Research Ethics? •  Social
Scien*sts
o-en
deal
in
sensi*ve
 subjects:
 –  Sexual
Ac*vity;
Sexual
Preference;
Income;
Racial
 A>tudes;
Gender
A>tudes;
Status.
 •  Ethical
Prac*ces
aCempt
to
limit
nega*ve
 impact
to
par*cipants
in
social
science
 research.
 –  See
Bri*sh
Gene*c
Study
as
Example.
 Rule 1 •  Voluntary
Par*cipa*on:
 –  Individuals
must
freely
volunteer
to
par*cipate
in
a
 social
experiment;
i.e.
they
cannot
be
unknowing
 par*cipants,
nor
can
they
be
posi*vely
or
nega*vely
 coerced.

 •  Posi*ve
coercion:
Offered
a
reward
for
doing
so.
 –  Extra
Credit
 –  Money
 –  Proba*on
 •  Nega*ve
coercion:
Threatened
with
“not
nice”
 consequences
if
they
don’t
cooperate.

 –  Fail
the
course
 –  Longer
Sentencing.
 –  Threats
of
shame,
guilt,
etc.

 Obstacles to Following Rule 1 •  Some
people
may
be
more
willing
to
 par*cipate
in
studies
than
others;
this
can
 lead
to
a
sampling
bias.
 –  i.e.
are
you
measuring
what
you
think
you
are?
 –  Example:
What
if
People
who
love
par*cipa*ng
in
 research
studies
are
also
very
prejudice,
and
 people
who
do
not
like
par*cipa*ng
are
not
 prejudice?
 Rule 2 •  Do
not
harm
the
par*cipants;
if
you
do,
have
a
 good
reason
and
minimize
the
amount
of
damage
 done.

 –  Can
be
both
Passive
and
Ac*ve.

 –  Physical
Damage
 •  Inducing
physical
pain
 •  With
holding
treatment
 –  Psychological
Damage
 •  Verbally
or
emo*onally
aCacking
a
par*cipant.

 •  Forcing
someone
to
deal
with
or
admit
dimensions
of
their
 personality
that
they
may
not
have
been
prepared
to
handle.

 Obstacles to Following Rule 2 •  Some*mes
physical
and
psychological
pain
is
 necessary.
 –  
i.e.
drawing
blood;
seeing
how
physical
stress
 affects
social
behavior.
 •  It
is
difficult
to
know
how
someone
will
react
 to
direct
ques*oning
or
to
the
results
of
 analysis.

 Rule 3 •  Maintain
the
Privacy
of
the
Par*cipant
 –  Anonymity:
Neither
the
researcher
nor
the
 audience
diges*ng
the
study
can
iden*fy
the
 name
of
the
par*cipant.
 –  Confiden*ality:
Although
the
researcher
knows
 the
iden*ty
of
the
par*cipant,
the
audience
does
 not.
 •  Why
is
Privacy
Important?
 –  Do
you
want
your mother to
know
about
your
 sexual
preferences?
 Obstacles to Following Rule 3 •  Some
research
methods
cannot
be
 anonymous.

 •  Confiden*ality
cannot
be
guaranteed.
 –  Research
records
can
be
subpoenaed.

 •  Accidents
can
happen:
 –  What
if
you
report
“anonymous”
informa*on
 about
a
half‐black,
half‐Eskimo,
lesbian,
 quadriplegic,
midget
who
lives
in
Nipon,
California
 (Popula*on
300
people).

 Rule 4 •  Researchers
should
aCempt
to
minimize
the
 amount
of
decep*on
they
use
regarding
who
 they
are,
as
well
as
the
nature
of
the
experiment.

 –  In
order
to
“willing
par*cipate”
in
an
experiment,
a
 person
needs
to
know
what
they
will
be
doing
and
 who
they
will
be
doing
it
for.
 –  For
certain
long‐term,
qualita*ve
studies,
trust
and
 affec*on
can
emerge;
psychological
damage
can
result
 when
par*cipant
learns
situa*on
was
not
real.

 Obstacles to Following Rule 4 •  In
order
to
maximize
the
validity
of
the
 experiment,
we
need
to
make
sure
we
do
not
 bias
the
behaviors
of
the
par*cipant.
 –  Tests
involving
chea*ng
 •  Respondents
may
also
act
differently
or
avoid
 contact
with
the
researcher
if
they
know
they
 are
being
analyzed.

 –  Some
groups
are
secret
and
do
not
allow
 outsiders.

 Safe Guards •  Informed
Consent
 –  Researcher
should
clearly
outline
for
the
par*cipant
the
 nature
of
the
experiment,
the
possible
risks,
and
the
 nature
of
the
precau*ons
that
can
and
cannot
be
taken
to
 protect
privacy.
 •  
Par*cipant
should
be
told
that
they
can
stop
the
 experiment
at
any
*me
with
no
nega*ve
 repercussions.

 •  The
Par*cipant
should
be
debriefed
a-er
the
 experiment
about
the
“true”
nature
of
the
study.
 •  All
studies
should
be
approved
by
the
Ins*tu*onal
 Review
Board.

 Professional Ethics •  •  •  •  •  Do
not
lie
about
your
results.
 Do
not
knowingly
bias
your
methods.
 Do
not
lie
about
your
methods.
 Share
your
data
with
the
scien*fic
community.
 Do
not
let
your
personal
beliefs
bias
your
 research.
 –  i.e.
be
as
value‐free
as
possible.

 –  Vaccines
and
Au*sm
 –  Global
Warming.
 •  Examples
of
Viola*ons
 Example 1 •  Tuskegee
Experiment:
1932
‐1972,
Alabama
 –  U.S.
Public
Health
Service
(PHS)
conducted
an
 experiment
on
399
black,
illiterate,
sharecroppers,
in
 the
late
stages
of
syphilis.

 –  Were
never
told
what
disease
they
were
suffering
 from
or
of
its
seriousness.
 •  Deceived
about
purpose
of
study,
methods,
benefits.
 •  Given
free
meals,
free
“medical
care”,
funeral
services
(if
 allowed
autopsy),
personal
driver
to
“clinic.”
 –  Were
not
given
treatment
once
developed
(1942);
 pa*ents
who
heard
of
treatment
were
convinced
not
 to
take
it.

 –  Goal
was
to
understand
how
syphilis
progressed
 through
all
stages
of
the
disease
(including
death).
 Consequences of Tuskegee •  Black‐Americans’
con*nued
suspicion
of
 medical
science
 –  Health
Clinics
 –  Malaria
Treatments
 –  AIDS
 –  Heart
Disease



 Example 2 •  Stanford
Prison
Experiments:
1971,
California
 –  Students
recruited
to
play
the
role
of
prisoner
and
jail
 guard.
 –  Purpose
was
to
study
how
personality
traits
interacted
 with
social
roles
to
create
abusive
prison
condi*ons.
 –  Situa*on
got
out
of
control;
guards
became
extremely
 sadis*c
in
their
treatment
of
prisoners.
Prisoners
 became
emo*onally
unstable.
 •  Interes*ng
Point:
Two
adver*sements
for
the
 study
were
used. 

 –  The
most
sadis*c
guards
were
the
ones
that
had
 responded
to
the
ads
using
the
term:
Prison
Study.
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2010 for the course SOC 4 taught by Professor Rick during the Spring '08 term at UC Riverside.

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