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Study Guide Section 25

# Study Guide Section 25 - Study Guide for Midterm 2 Chapters...

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Study Guide for Midterm 2: Chapters 4, 5, 6 Chapter 4 (Sections: Purposes of Research, Logic of Nomothetic Explanation, Necessary and Sufficient Causes, The Time Dimension): What are the three purposes of research? Know their names, their defining characteristics, and how to differentiate between each. What are the three purposes of research? a. Exploration- when a researcher examines a new interest or when the subject or study itself is relatively new b. Description-the researcher observes and then describes what is observed c. Explanation- when explanatory studies address questions of why What are the criteria for establishing nomothetic causality? Know their names, their defining characteristics, and how to differentiate between each. What are the criteria for establishing nomothetic causality? d. Variables must be correlated i. Correlation- when changes in one are associated with changes in the other e. The cause takes place before the effect f. The variables nonspurious i. Spurious relationships- ones that aren’t genuine What are necessary and sufficient causes? -Necessary causes : condition that must be present for the effect to follow. ( ex. Need a male to become pregnant )

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- Sufficient causes : condition, that if present garantees the effect ( ex. you have to be female to be pregnant ) What is the difference between a cross-sectional study and a longitudinal study? What is a trend study? A panel study? A Cohort study? How are these similar? Different? What is the difference between a cross-sectional study and a longitudinal study? - Cross-sectional Study : Observation of a sample, or cross-section of a population or phenomena that are made at one point in time ( U.S. Census ) - Longitudinal Study : Observation of same phenomena over extended(LONG) point in time . (Field Study) What is a trend study? - Trend Study : A type of longitudinal Study that examines change within a population overtime . ( comparison of U.S. Census over period of decades| checking a variable from the year 1900,to 2000 ) A panel study? -
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Study Guide Section 25 - Study Guide for Midterm 2 Chapters...

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