Unformatted text preview: -- + +-CH 2 =CH 2- + O alkoxy -O-R carbonyl -C- alkyl -R cyano -C N electron-donating electron-withdrawing resonance groups groups groups CH 2-CH CH 2-CH CH 2-CH CH 2-CH X X X: The effect of the substituent manifests itself by its alteration of the electron-cloud density on the double bond and its ability to stabilize the possible radical, anion. or cation formed. 2.3 Four Major Polymerization Techniques (no solvent) (monomer in solution (both monomer (both monomer and suspended and polymer in and polymer polymer particles) microemulsion, in solution) usually water) bulk suspension emulsion solution Polymerization Processes In principle, a polymerization reaction may be carried out in the solid phase, the liquid phase or the gas phase. In practice, commercial scale polymerizations are almost always conducted in the liquid phase. It may be noted, however, that gas phase processes for polyolefins are of importance (as discussed in Chapter 3). Liquid phase polymerizations may be subdivided into four types according to the nature of Chapter 3)....
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 10/16/2010 for the course MATSE 441 taught by Professor Chung,tze-chiang during the Fall '10 term at Penn State.
- Fall '10