3209 MEMO 2009

# 3209 MEMO 2009 - ECE 3209 Electromagnetic Fields University...

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ECE 3209 — Electromagnetic Fields University of Virginia Fall 2009 As you study and learn about the diﬀerent specialized areas of electrical engineering, many of you might notice that only a few of your courses make explicit reference to electromagnetic ﬁelds. In fact, many of the engineers that work in signal processing, controls, digital systems or computer architecture never need to calculate an electric ﬁeld magnitude or worry about magnetic vector potentials. Part of the reason is that much of engineering design is done at a “system” level where the details of electromagnetic ﬁeld distributions or the inner workings of semiconductor components are unnecessary complications. Given this, you might be tempted to ask why is it necessary to learn about electromagnetic ﬁelds? Electromagnetics was the ﬁrst “specialized” area in electrical engineering and continues to be the foundation upon which all modern electrical systems rely. This is not always obvious because electromagnetic ﬁeld theory is often “hidden” or disguised by a simpler set of rules. Most engineers are familiar with Kirchhoﬀ’s Laws which are used to design and analyze elec- trical circuits. Kirchhoﬀ’s Laws, however, are really simpliﬁed versions of more general laws known as Maxwell’s Equations. Maxwell’s Equations are the fundamental rules governing the behavior of electromagnetic ﬁelds and, as a consequence, are the basis for all electrical and electronic systems. Perhaps the ﬁeld in which electromagnetics is used most explicitly is the microwave and wireless RF industry. The RF industry is quite large: microwave systems have been a vital technology for our nation’s defense since World War II and, more recently, the commercial and consumer applications of microwave and RF systems have grown at an unprecedented rate thanks to development of wireless networks, high-bandwidth personal communications, au- tomotive collision avoidance radar, and navigation systems for aircraft and ships. Moreover, the speed of computer CPU’s has continued to increase with the development of nanometer- scale CMOS devices enabling clock rates well into the Gigahertz region. At these frequencies, metal traces on printed circuit boards can radiate as antennas and there can be very strong coupling between signals on adjacent traces. In addition, one must be very careful to account for propagation delays and reﬂected signals bouncing back and forth within a printed circuit. With all this going on, signals do not look much like simple “1”’s and “0”’s anymore. To understand these phenomena and properly account for them, future designers of high-speed digital systems must be proﬁcient with electromagnetic ﬁeld theory. The goal of this course is for you to learn the basic laws of electromagnetism and how

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## This note was uploaded on 10/16/2010 for the course ECE 309 taught by Professor Weikle during the Fall '08 term at UVA.

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3209 MEMO 2009 - ECE 3209 Electromagnetic Fields University...

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