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Biochem2 - Macromolecules What is a macromolecule composed...

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Macromolecules: What is a macromolecule composed of?
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Table 3.1 Building Blocks of Organisms Fatty acids Lipids * *
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Figure 3-3 Substances found in living tissues
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Nucleic Acids = stores hereditary material Proteins = structural support, protection, transport, catalysis, defense, regulation and movement CBH = source of energy (glucose) and carbon skeletons for structure and support (cellulose, chitin makes up external skeleton of insects and crustaceans) Lipids = Stores energy, phospholipids = structural role in cell membr, thermal insulation (blubber), steroids = regulatory role as hormones and vitamins, lipid coating around nerves = electrical insulation, oil or wax in feathers, skin, fur repels water.
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How do we build our macromolecules? Figure 3-4 Condensation and hydrolysis of polymers Condensation- dehydration reactions require energy input: ATP Covalent bonds
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Building macromolecules condensation/dehydration rxns require energy. Figure 6.5/ 8.5 ATP Hydrolysis of ATP Releases energy
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Lipids • Cell membranes plasma membrane on outside of cell Organelles nucleus, mitochondria, ER, Golgi, lysosomes, etc • Important energy storage material Basic units are fatty acids and glycerol
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Figure 3-19 Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids Differences between different Fatty Acids: Length (usually 14, 16, 18) Saturation/Unsaturation
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TG of animal fats = long chained and saturated FA, packed together tightly Therefore = solid at RT and have high melting point TG of plants tend to have short or unsaturated FA, DUE TO KINKS = pack together poorly = low melting point = liquid at RT
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PALMITATE SATURATED LINOLEIC ACID UNSATURATED
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Figure 3-18 Synthesis of a triglyceride (aka, a triacylglycerol) Glycerol + 3 fatty acids + 3 ATP --> a triglyceride (3 condensation/dehydration reactions)
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What are triglycerides used for?
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