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Biochem3 - Proteins Proteins Most abundant class of...

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Proteins
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Proteins Most abundant class of macromolecules 50% of dry weight of cells Most versatile macromolecules in the cell in terms of number of functions performed •serve as catalysts (enzymes) •determine cell shape (structural proteins) •hormones (insulin, growth hormone, etc) •transport molecules (hemoglobin, mem. channels, etc) •defense molecules (antibodies) •mechanical work (muscle contraction)
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How can proteins do so many different things? Structure determines Function so, if proteins can serve so many different functions, they must be able to form many different structures! How do they do that? 1. Proteins are long chains of 10 to thousands of amino acids in length 2. There are 20 different kinds of amino acids Vast array of structures must be able to exist
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There are 20 possible amino acids for 1st position 20 for 2nd etc. etc….. How many different proteins can you make??? To make a protein = 10 amino acids long There are 20 amino acids in nature = 20 10 possible combinations of proteins 10 a.a. long 20 10 = 200 billion combinations Example of a small protein = insulin = 51 amino acids long Insulin deficient/resistant in many diabetics There are 20 51 different ways in which the 20 amino acids could be arranged to make a chain 51 amino acids long
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Again, the reason so many structures are possible is: 1.Proteins are comprised of 20 different amino acids, each with unique chemical features.
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