Biochem6_7 - Mutations Errors in Replication Lead to Errors...

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Mutations: Errors in Replication Lead to Errors in Protein Sequence and Function Mutations = changes in DNA seq Not all mutations lead to aa changes
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Silent Mutations 4 mRNA codons code for proline = CCA CCC CCU CCG C G
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“Missense” mutations Substitute one amino acid for another = sickle cell anemia Changes function of a protein GUU = Val GAU = Asp T A
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Nonsense” mutations = substitute a stop codon very disruptive UAG = Stop UGG = Trp C G (Truncation)
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“Frame-shift” mutations = lose reading frame
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THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT ATH EFA TCA TAT ETH ERA T “Frame-shift” mutations Deletion = T HEF ATC ATA TET HER AT Addition = Changes the reading frame. All aa after will be wrong
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Figure 12-19 Chromosomal mutations
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Spontaneous (no outside influence) and “induced” mutations Mutagen Tautomer
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12-20 Spontaneous (no outside influence) and “induced” mutations C is mutated and pairs with A
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What are some applications of our Knowledge of DNA structure and replication Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) • DNA sequencing
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Figure 11-23 The polymerase chain reaction: “PCR”
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Watch PCR Movie http://www.ppsk.usm.my/lecturers/mravi/Animation/PCR.MOV
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Figure 11-24 Sequencing DNA
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DNA sequencing Movie http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mz-4LSfecM4 Automated DNA sequencing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezAefHhvecM&feature=related
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ENERGY, ENZYMES and METABOLISM
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ENERGY, ENZYMES and METABOLISM We need energy to do things, such as biosynthesis, work (muscle contraction, etc) •Chemical reactions enzymes and kinetics thermodynamics •Metabolism - getting energy from fuel (food)!
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Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life . These processes allow organisms to grow reproduce maintain their structures respond to their environments In a living organism, chemical reactions are occurring continuously = METABOLISM Metabolism = sum total of these reactions = anabolism + catabolism
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THERMODYNAMICS Thermodynamics tells us what is possible given an infinite amount of time….what will
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