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Dr._Wilson_Set_5_Updated_1A.09

Dr._Wilson_Set_5_Updated_1A.09 - Set 5 Cell Division in...

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Set 5 Cell Division in Prokaryotes
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Chromosomes in Prokaryotes- Important Features Prokaryotes have just one chromosome It is in the form of a circle made of double stranded DNA The stretched out length of the chromosome is ~ 1500 μm so it must be folded to fit inside the cell
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The Prokaryotic Chromosome A spread out E. coli chromosome as seen by electron microscopy
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Cell Division in a Prokaryote (relatively simple) DNA attaches to the cell membrane During S phase (snthesis) duplication occurs; note two copies, two attachment points Fission begins Fission is complete Fig. 9.1
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Cell Division in Prokaryotes The duplicated chromosome is attached to the cell membrane to ensure proper distribution to the daughter cells When the DNA replicates, the attachment points separate as the cell divides The cells divide by binary fission (splitting into 2 cells)
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Fig. 9.1 Fission is almost complete (pg 183)
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The Cell Cycle and Cell Division in Eukaryotes Much more complex than in prokaryotes
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The Cycle is divided into 4 Stages 1) DNA synthesis-- the “ S ” phase 2) Mitosis (nuclear division) --is the “ M ” phase 3) The stage between M and S-- is GAP1 G1 4) The stage between S and M -- is GAP 2 G2 G1, S, and G2 together is considered interphase
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Pie Chart of the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Fig. 9.3, p.184 G zero (a part of G1) the stop/start point of the cycle
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The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle is Tightly Controlled Control is by a class of enzymes, called cyclin- dependent kinases (abbreviated Cdks) -These enzymes place covalently linked phosphate groups on the cell cycle control molecules- the cyclins
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Additional Important Features: The cyclins and the cyclin-dependent kinases work together as complexes
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