Dr._Wilson_Set_7_1A.09

Dr._Wilson_Set_7_1A.09 - Meiosis The basis of Mendelian...

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Meiosis The basis of Mendelian Genetics
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Homologous Chromosomes Most eukaryotic organisms have 2 complete sets or pairs of chromosomes, one set (one member of each pair) donated by the mother, the second set donated by the father The pairs are called homologous chromosomes, or simply, homologs Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes 22 of the pairs are homologous pairs, (the 23rd pair is not- these are the sex chromosomes) The two chromosomes of a homologous pair contain the same genes (but they are not identical)
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MEIOSIS When cells have both sets of genes, they are said to be diploid (or 2 n) During formation of eggs and sperm, only one set is retained and one set is lost. So, mature eggs and sperm are said to be haploid (or 1 n) The process of reducing the number of chromosomes to the haploid state, which occurs dueing formation of eggs and sperm, is called meiosis The diploid state (2n) is regained when an egg cell is fertilized by a sperm cell
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Karyotype of a Female, Aligned by Chromosome Size Females have two X chromosomes, males have one X and one Y chromosome Each chromosome actually has 2 chromatids
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Meiosis Creates Genetic Diversity Gene re-assortment occurs during meiosis as egg cells and sperm cells are formed and when egg cells and sperm cells combine to form the new individual
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