Genetics4 - Genetics of Viruses and Prokaryotes (chapter...

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Co In E Genetics of Viruses and Prokaryotes (chapter 13) • Virus life cycles (pg 283-289) – Bacteriophages – Influenza virus compare to HIV • Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes (pg 296-300) – Lac operon – Trp operon • Plasmids and Prokaryotic genomes. 68
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Co In E What are viruses? = sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable to grow or reproduce outside a host cell. Viruses are not alive • no metabolic activity outside a host cell. • don’t take in nutrients or produce waste. • don’t grow. • requires host cell machinery to reproduce Viruses are tiny. Eg the HIV is 100 times smaller than a typical human cell In spite of all this, they have a great impact on our lives, causing many diseases
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Co In E May 1997 a 3 year old boy in Hong Kong developed a cough and fever Fever progressed to lung failure - boy dies Cultured fluid from his lungs - found influenza virus particles Mutation of a bird virus results in human infection Nucleotide sequence of the virus in the chicks and boy matched Little boy had been infected with H5N1 = flu virus only known to infect chickens, but a mutation in gene for virus surface glycoprotein made the avian virus capable of binding to and infecting humans December - 18 people were infected and 6 died of bird flu Tests of live chickens from markets revealed high rate of H5N1 infection Health officials ordered slaughter of all chickens (1.5 million chickens) Major epidemic avoided
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Co In E Infuenza A virus strains Are categorized according to two surFace proteins hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) All infuenza A viruses contain hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, but the structures oF these proteins diFFer = rapid genetic mutation Infuenza A virus strains are assigned an H and N number There are 16 H and 9 N subtypes known in birds, but only H 1, 2 and 3, and N 1 and 2 are commonly Found in humans. Hong Kong bird flu = H5N1
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In E Viruses and Human Health The "Spanish Flu" pandemic of 1918-1919 was one of the deadliest plagues in human history, killing as many as 50 million people. Avian H5N1 Influenza
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Genetics4 - Genetics of Viruses and Prokaryotes (chapter...

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