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Genetics5 - The Eukaryotic Genome and its Expression(Chapt...

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Co In E Comparison of various genome sizes Typical virus = 10,000 bp E coli = 4.6 million bp Yeast = 12 million bp Humans = 6 billion bp The Eukaryotic Genome and its Expression (Chapt 14)
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Co In E Eukaryotic genome Eukaryotic genomes are larger than those of prokaryotes. Much of eukaryotic DNA is noncoding. Eukaryotes have multiple chromosomes. In eukaryotes, transcription and translation are physically separated. Eukaryotes have more complex regulation than prokaryotes. Eukaryotic genomes have more regulatory sequences and more regulatory proteins that bind to them. 86
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Co In E Table 14.1 A Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Genes and Genomes 87
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Co In E Why do eukaryotes have larger genomes? Caenorhabditis elegans , a small nematode, has become a model for multicellular organisms. The genome of C. elegans has been sequenced and contains about 19,000 protein-coding genes. About 3,000 genes in the worm have homologs in yeast. These genes are the ones considered essential to all eukaryotes. Many of the remaining 16,000 genes perform roles related to multicellularity. 88
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Co In E Similarities between single and multicellular organisms = surviving, growing and dividing In addition multicellular org must have genes for : • holding cells together to form tissues • for cell differentiation to divide up tasks among those tissues • for intercellular communication pathways to coordinate their activities
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Co In E Figure 14.1 Eukaryotic mRNA Is transcribed in the nucleus,exported to the cytoplasm where translation occurs 90
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Co In E 7 RNA splicing movie Animation 14-01
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Co In E Figure 14.12 Potential Points for the Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes 93
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Co In E The initiation of transcription in Eukaryotes
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Co In E Figure 14.14 The Roles of Transcription Factors, Regulators , and Activators (Part 1) 95
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Co In E Figure 14.12 The Roles of Transcription Factors, Regulators, and Activators (Part 2) 96 transcription
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