Bonds__15359 - Atoms, Bonds, and Electronegativities In...

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Atoms, Bonds, and Electronegativities In terms of understanding the chemistry you need to know for this course, think of the predominant atoms we have seen in biomolecules so far: O (oxygen), N (nitrogen), H (hydrogen), and C (carbon) comprise >96% of the molecular structures of biological molecules. So look at how we have bonded these atoms together; we have seen these in several molecules: C = O O - H N – H C – H C – C We have seen these bonds in different types of molecules. These are covalent bonds which involve sharing of electrons between atoms. This sharing of electrons is not always equally divided between the atoms, it depends upon the electronegativity of the atoms bonded together. Electronegativity is the affinity, or “pull” an atom has to draw those shared electrons around its’ nucleus. Since we are primarily interested in C, H, O, and N atoms, know that the electronegativity of O > C and H and the same is true for nitrogen: N > C and H. What does this mean? The more electronegative atom in a bond will “pull” the electrons so that the majority of the time those electrons are hanging out around that atoms’ nucleus. This produces a partial negative charge around that atom (why?: electrons are negatively charged, the extra electrons near its’ nucleus provide the partial negative charge. Conversely, it creates a partial postive charge around the less electronegative atom in the bond. See next page.
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Bonds__15359 - Atoms, Bonds, and Electronegativities In...

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