Unformatted text preview: logical Organization (continued)
Organs & organ systems (≥ 2 or more tissues)
10 µm Cells*
Cell Organelle (molecules arranged to form a functional component) Chloroplast
1 µm Leaf of a maple tree Tissues (group of similar cells)
50 µm Atoms of atoms) Chlorophyll molecule Molecules (combinations • What is the lowest level at which photosynthesis will occur? Systems Biology
• A systems biology approach examines the features of a whole system through the use of models. • Example: fruit fly cell & the interactions of >2000 proteins in that cell
– Dots = proteins; Lines = interactions between proteins – Use model to test the effect of changes to the system, i.e., alter activity of one of the proteins – Constructing this model: Does the reductionist approach occur at all?
Outer Outer membrane and cell surface Cytoplasm Nucleus Life Requires Energy • Organisms possess converted to… metabolic processes to chemical energy exchange matter & Use energy to “fix” Energy Heat energy with its CO2 and… flow environment. …form • Energy flows from organic producers to molecules consumers Consumers • Decomposers break Breakdown complex, (heterotrophs) organic molecules by… down dead organic energy Heat material & release released Cellular respiration nutrients back to the (requires O2) or by… environment.
Simpler molecules Fermentation (no O2) Producers (autotrophs; photosynthesis) light energy Biological Structures Correlate to Their Function
• Applicable to multiple levels of biological organization:
– Bone structure of a bird wing bones arranged to form an aero‐dynamic shape + bone composition that makes it light in weight – Cells, Proteins: possess structural shapes that relate to their particular function Collagen protein fiber Cells are the Functional Units of Life
• Life’s properties are apparent once molecules are organized into cells.
– Organism functions based on it’s cellular activities; e.g., neurons, muscle cells, etc. – Cell Theory* – All cells possess: a membrane across which materials are exchanged with its surroundings; DNA; RNA; ribosomes • Eukaryotic cells: DNA inside a nucleus; multiple organelles; larger size • Prokaryotes: 50...
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2010 for the course HE 012928 taught by Professor Storrs,london during the Spring '10 term at École Normale Supérieure.
- Spring '10