Lecture-5A-Macromole_42286

Lecture-5A-Macromole_42286 - BiologicalMacromolecules

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Biological Macromolecules •Mos t all biological molecules fall into one of four classes: Percentage of cellular material Carbohydrates 15% Proteins 50% Nucleic acids 25% Lipids 10% • Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids can attain very large sizes(1000’s of atoms) and are called macromolecules. pids are generally much smaller and not • Lipids are generally much smaller and not considered as such.
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•P ro te in s , Nucleic acids, & Carbohydrates are polymers comprised of repeating units of structurally similar small molecules termed monomers . – Monomers are linked together by dehydration reactions (aka Polymer form Monomer unit condensation reactions ): Polymer increased by one esults in loss of water + H 2 O Results in loss of water Hydrolysis reactions breakdown polymers to monomers using ater as a reactant; components of water are in products: water as a reactant; components of water are in products: + add H 2 O Polymer decreased by one Free Monomer unit
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Carbohydrates (Sugars) • Monomer unit Æ Monosaccharide; molecular formula is some ; multiple of CH 2 O ; nomenclature: suffix –ose . Glucose (C 6 H 12 0 6 ): most common monosaccharide Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides • Trioses, Pentoses, Hexoses, etc, refer to the # of carbon atoms the monosaccharide. in the monosaccharide. •P o l ym e r form: polysaccharide • Functional groups: Hydroxyl & Carbonyl
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Functions of Carbohydrates: •M o n o & Disaccharides Æ
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2010 for the course HE 012928 taught by Professor Storrs,london during the Spring '10 term at École Normale Supérieure.

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Lecture-5A-Macromole_42286 - BiologicalMacromolecules

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