39 40 european empires and poverty for intellectuals

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Unformatted text preview: ropean empires. • By the 1960s, imperialism had lost its moral legitimacy (and profitability). • New independent states were emerging on a regular basis. – In Europe, the state became the provider of cradle to Europe the state became the provider of cradle to grave security. – In the form of ‘capitalism with a human face,’ this became another way that Europe differentiated itself from the supposedly anonymous and uncaring capitalism of the United States. 39 40 European Empires and Poverty America Unchanged by 1990s • For intellectuals on the left, the European empires were guilty of causing poverty in the Third World. • By the 1990s, the United States was remarkably unchanged. – Decolonization was seen as an advance towards a liberal national system composed entirely of independent states. – In another way, it was a retreat from that system. another way it was retreat from that system • Some of the new states, such as India, proved to be viable. • Many more of the new states were honorary, states in name only, incapable of defending themselves, lacking the ability or even the desire to police their citizens. – The percentage of Americans who attended church had dropped, but it remained high compared to Western Europe. – Large numbers of Americans still believed in God. numbers of Americans still believed in God – Victory in the Cold War had reinforced American confidence. • Surveys showed that the vast majority of Americans were proud to be American, and that they believed strongly in the basic goodness of America’s institutions and ideals. • Like Americans as far back as 1776, they were simultaneously optimistic, liberal, and conservative. 41 © 2010, Ted R. Bromund and Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 42 7 Prof. Minh A. Luong <[email protected]> The International State System INTL1280/POLS 1410: Global Security After the Cold War Brown University Europe’s Lost Vision Europe: War Not Acceptable • The European continent was now post-Christian, with few Europeans attending church regularly or believing in God. • Post-modern Europeans no longer regarded war as acceptable. – Liberal nationalism had long thought of war in defense of the national interest, or to uphold the structure of the international system, as both legitimate and necessary. – Religion was no longer respectable, a situation that Europeans took as the norm – Nationalism, too, was at a discount. • Decreasing numbers of Europeans reported they were proud to be citizens of their country. – There was no corresponding increase in the number who identified themselves as Europeans. • Ideas and practices that were fundamental to the American ordering of the state and the world, had, in Europe, lost their legitimacy. • But in Europe, the lesson of World War II came to be that war was always morally dubious: ‘never again’ applied not to the Holocaust, but to war itself. • Rallying cry: Violence is Never the Answer 43 44 Europe Demilitarizes Europe Adopts Modernity • Europe spent ever less on its militaries, which both reflected and further promoted its distaste for war. • By the end of the Cold War, an integrating Europe could now present itself as uniquely modern...
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2010 for the course INTL 0990 taught by Professor Li during the Spring '10 term at Brown.

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