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• By the 1960s, imperialism had lost its moral
legitimacy (and profitability).
• New independent states were emerging on a
regular basis. – In Europe, the state became the provider of cradle to
Europe the state became the provider of cradle to
– In the form of ‘capitalism with a human face,’ this
became another way that Europe differentiated itself
from the supposedly anonymous and uncaring
capitalism of the United States. 39 40 European Empires and Poverty America Unchanged by 1990s • For intellectuals on the left, the European empires
were guilty of causing poverty in the Third World. • By the 1990s, the United States was remarkably
unchanged. – Decolonization was seen as an advance towards a
liberal national system composed entirely of
– In another way, it was a retreat from that system.
another way it was retreat from that system • Some of the new states, such as India, proved to
• Many more of the new states were honorary, states
in name only, incapable of defending themselves,
lacking the ability or even the desire to police their
citizens. – The percentage of Americans who attended church had
dropped, but it remained high compared to Western
– Large numbers of Americans still believed in God.
numbers of Americans still believed in God
– Victory in the Cold War had reinforced American
• Surveys showed that the vast majority of Americans were
proud to be American, and that they believed strongly in the
basic goodness of America’s institutions and ideals.
• Like Americans as far back as 1776, they were simultaneously
optimistic, liberal, and conservative. 41 © 2010, Ted R. Bromund and Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 42 7 Prof. Minh A. Luong
<Minh_Luong@brown.edu> The International State System
INTL1280/POLS 1410: Global Security After the Cold War
Brown University Europe’s Lost Vision Europe: War Not Acceptable • The European continent was now post-Christian,
with few Europeans attending church regularly or
believing in God. • Post-modern Europeans no longer regarded
war as acceptable.
– Liberal nationalism had long thought of war in
defense of the national interest, or to uphold the
structure of the international system, as both
legitimate and necessary. – Religion was no longer respectable, a situation that
Europeans took as the norm
– Nationalism, too, was at a discount. • Decreasing numbers of Europeans reported they
were proud to be citizens of their country.
– There was no corresponding increase in the number
who identified themselves as Europeans. • Ideas and practices that were fundamental to the
American ordering of the state and the world, had,
in Europe, lost their legitimacy. • But in Europe, the lesson of World War II
came to be that war was always morally
dubious: ‘never again’ applied not to the
Holocaust, but to war itself.
• Rallying cry: Violence is Never the Answer 43 44 Europe Demilitarizes Europe Adopts Modernity • Europe spent ever less on its militaries, which
both reflected and further promoted its distaste for
war. • By the end of the Cold War, an integrating
Europe could now present itself as uniquely
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- Spring '10