The rise of secularism the alternative to having a

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Unformatted text preview: state system • Liberal nationalism has its roots in the Treaty of Westphalia, which was signed in 1648. • The rise of secularism • The alternative to having a state system was not, as Europeans had learned, the kingdom of God on earth: rather, it was vicious religious warfare. • Next several hundred years: – State was defined by practice, not law – Maintained relations via diplomatic service – Constabulary to maintain internal order – Courts to adjudicate disputes and punish – Adopted rules of war and adhered to them • By mid-19th Century – Some freedom of religion – Slavery mostly eradicated 7 8 United States oldest of “modern” nations The French Revolution • The modern international system came into being when the concepts of nationalism and popular, democratic government were added to the Westphalian order. • The first nation to base itself explicitly on these concepts was the United States. • The French Revolution of 1789, and the reactions of the peoples of Europe against Napoleon, brought nationalism and the will of the people to the state system in Europe. • By the mid-nineteenth century, the only fully legitimate states were those that allowed their people some share in their own government. – Far from being a young nation, the United States is actually an old nation, the oldest modern nation in the world. – Autocracies like Tsarist Russia survived – Slavery in the United States existed – Russia and U.S. were recognized by the rest of the system as retrograde exceptions to the rules that governed the modern world. 9 10 Nationalism Vital for States Nationalism Liberalizing • Nationalism was vital to the forging of states that could carry on their business without being destroyed by internal conflict. • Nationalism did what it had to do: • Made popular government safe by creating common loyalties. – It made citizens out of subjects. – It took people who were ruled, and made them into people who could rule. – People could be and were divided by religion, class, or region, but … – With loyalty to the nation at the center of the political system, every party was forced to identify, in some measure with common good measure, with a common good. • Nationalism was not perfect, but it was a practical necessity: – The international system could not exist without wellordered states, and – In an era of popular governments, nationalism was how domestic order was maintained. 11 © 2010, Ted R. Bromund and Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 12 2 Prof. Minh A. Luong <Minh_Luong@brown.edu> The International State System INTL1280/POLS 1410: Global Security After the Cold War Brown University States needed to act like states Challenge of World War I • Throughout the 19th Century, statehood was real, not honorary. • You became a state not by calling yourself one, but by acting like one. • The First World War did not destroy liberal nationalism • Actually, it reinforced the support for liberal nationalism • Nationalism had not been appl...
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