They argued that the war had been started by imperial

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Unformatted text preview: ied with sufficient thoroughness previously. – States had to be capable of defending their existence by maintaining regular armed forces and by following the rules of the system. – They argued that the war had been started by Imperial Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire because both were undemocratic, multi-ethnic, oppressive regimes that did not respect the rights of self-determination and small nations. • Their solution, as embodied in The Fourteen Points, was not less nationalism, but a more widespread application of nationalism. 13 14 The Fourteen Points – An Effort to Achieve Global Security Fourteen Points, cont. I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims based upon adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. 15 16 Fourteen Points, cont. Fourteen Points, cont. VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory … VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored… VIII. All French territory should be freed… IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy… readjustment of the frontiers of Italy… X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, accorded …autonomous development… XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated… XII. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty… XIII. An independent Polish state… XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. This is, of course, the ill-fated League of Nations 17 © 2010, Ted R. Bromund and Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 18 3 Prof. Minh A. Luong <[email protected]> The International State System INTL1280/POLS 1410: Global Security After the Cold War Brown University The Communist Challenge Vladimir Ilyich Lenin • The interwar era was ended by ideologies that rejected this liberal order. • Communism sought to organize not by...
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