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Unformatted text preview: ied with sufficient
thoroughness previously. – States had to be capable of defending their
existence by maintaining regular armed forces
and by following the rules of the system. – They argued that the war had been started by Imperial Germany
and the Austro-Hungarian Empire because both were
undemocratic, multi-ethnic, oppressive regimes that did not respect
the rights of self-determination and small nations. • Their solution, as embodied in The Fourteen Points, was
not less nationalism, but a more widespread application of
nationalism. 13 14 The Fourteen Points – An Effort
to Achieve Global Security Fourteen Points, cont. I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which
there shall be no private international understandings of
any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and
in the public view.
II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside
territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the
seas may be closed in whole or in part by international
action for the enforcement of international covenants.
III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers
and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions
among all the nations consenting to the peace and
associating themselves for its maintenance. IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that
national armaments will be reduced to the lowest
point consistent with domestic safety.
V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial
adjustment of all colonial claims based upon
adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a
strict observance of the principle that in
determining all such questions of sovereignty the
interests of the populations concerned must have
equal weight with the equitable claims of the
government whose title is to be determined. 15 16 Fourteen Points, cont. Fourteen Points, cont. VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory …
VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be
evacuated and restored…
VIII. All French territory should be freed…
IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy…
readjustment of the frontiers of Italy…
X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, accorded
XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be
XII. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman
Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty…
XIII. An independent Polish state… XIV. A general association of nations must be
formed under specific covenants for the
purpose of affording mutual guarantees of
political independence and territorial
integrity to great and small states alike.
This is, of course, the ill-fated League of
Nations 17 © 2010, Ted R. Bromund and Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 18 3 Prof. Minh A. Luong
<Minh_Luong@brown.edu> The International State System
INTL1280/POLS 1410: Global Security After the Cold War
Brown University The Communist Challenge Vladimir Ilyich Lenin • The interwar era was ended by ideologies
that rejected this liberal order.
• Communism sought to organize not by...
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- Spring '10