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Unformatted text preview: nation but by class.
• As such it was first great rival to the
international state system since 1648. “The bourgeoisie always places its national
demands in the forefront, and does so in
categorical fashion. With the proletariat,
however, these demands are subordinated to
the interests of the class struggle.”
V.I. Lenin, The Right of Nations to SelfDetermination (1914) (1870-1924) 19 20 Lenin’s Argument The Fascist-Nazi Challenge • Nations are not the right
way to order the world.
• The interests of the
working class, the
proletariat, cross all
• The world should be
world should be
organized not into nations,
but into classes, with the
sweeping the other classes
• If this did not actually
wipe out national
boundaries, it would
render them meaningless. • The second great enemy to the international
state system in the modern era was Fascism,
exemplified by Nazism, which also rose to
power after the First World War.
• Nazism sought to organize not by nation, or
by class, but by race. 21 22 Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) Hitler’s Argument “The State is only a means to an end. Its end and its
purpose is to . . . preserve the existence of the
race, thereby providing the indispensable
condition for the free development of all the forces
dormant in this race. . . . We National Sots,
who are fighting for a new philosophy of life must
never take our stand on the famous 'basis of facts',
and especially not on mistaken facts. . . . The
State is only the vessel and the race is what it
contains. The vessel can have a meaning only if it
preserves and safeguards the contents. Otherwise
it is worthless.”
Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, vol. 2 (1926) • Nations are not the right
way to order the world.
• The nation state is only a
means to an end.
• Hitler saw democracy as a
because it placed power in
the hands of ethnic
minorities, who he
claimed "weakened and
destabilized" the Empire,
by dividing it against
itself. 23 © 2010, Ted R. Bromund and Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 24 4 Prof. Minh A. Luong
<[email protected]> The International State System
INTL1280/POLS 1410: Global Security After the Cold War
Brown University Comparisons of Communism and
Fascism/Nazism An Appealing Message,
Delivered Compellingly • For Lenin, the end was the victory of the
• For Hitler, the end was the victory of the
• For both Lenin and Hitler, loyalty to the
nation state was false loyalty.
• Both Communism and Nazism were antinational religions. • Both the Communists and, especially, Adolf
Hitler were also skilled at speaking the
language of liberal nationalism.
• In the inter-war years, Communism was a
real and potent force throughout Europe.
• Vladimir I. Lenin, The Right of Nations to
• In the 1930s, Hitler’s rhetoric about selfdetermination for the German people lent a
sheen of morality to appeasement.
26 25 World War II WWII and Global Security • By the time H...
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2010 for the course INTL 0990 taught by Professor Li during the Spring '10 term at Brown.
- Spring '10