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Unformatted text preview: Prof. Minh A. Luong <> United Nations Peacekeeping Briefing INTL1280: Global Security After the Cold War Brown University The Age of Peacekeeping Global Security After the Cold War This document provides an outline of a presentation and is incomplete without the accompanying oral commentary and discussion. The Age of Peacekeeping Age of Peacekeeping International Relations 1280 Political Science 1410 Minh A. Luong <> The content is the professional opinion of the content is the professional opinion of the presenter and is not necessarily the official position of Brown University. © 2010 Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 2 Conflict Prevention as UN Goal United Nations as Peacekeeper • Paragraph 1, Article 1 of the UN Charter: • Security Council as international police officer – “effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace.” – Meant to replace the United States as the “World’s Police Officer” – Gain consensus among the great powers similar to the Concert of Europe – Five major Allied powers – U.S., U.K, France, Russia (U.S.S.R.), and China (PRC) are permanent members with veto power • No empowerment clauses or mechanisms for enforcement • Until the 1990s, the UN avoided getting involved in civil wars unless the interests of the major powers were at stake 3 4 Increase in Security Council resolutions Shift from reaction to prevention • The end of the Cold War made the Security Council more relevant • Average number of Council resolutions Council resolutions increased sharply • UN Secretary-General Boutros BoutrosGhali announced a new doctrine in Agenda for Peace (1992) • Shift from UN reacting to conflict to preventing conflict (early warning) – 1946-89 averaged approx. 15 per year – 1990s averaged approx. 60 per year – 2000s averaged – Approx. 85 per year – Fact finding missions – Diplomacy – Preventive deployments – Demilitarized zones 5 © 2010 Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 6 1 Prof. Minh A. Luong <> United Nations Peacekeeping Briefing INTL1280: Global Security After the Cold War Brown University Limitations of the UN mandate Stages of Peacekeeping • UN cannot interfere with the internal affairs of countries unless crimes against humanity or genocide are occurring • Pre-conflict – Fact-finding – Diplomacy – Threat of sanctions and/or intervention – This was to address the concerns of more authoritarian countries such as the USSR USSR (Russia) and PRC (China) • Conflict – Sanctions and intervention • Post-conflict • Ability of the Security Council to intervene is wholly dependent on contributions by member countries – Aid to non-combatants – Buffer zones and UN observers 7 8 Mid-1990s - Strengthening Attacking “root causes” • Joint Inspection Unit (JIU) publishes Strengthening of the United Nations System Capacity for Conflict Prevention (1995) • Picks up where Agenda for Peace (1992) left off – argues for more preventative diplomacy AND comprehensive conflict prevention strategy • This forms the cornerstone of UN conflict prevention strategy from 1995 to the present • Comprehensive strategy includes: – Preventative peace-building or structural prevention – Key to success in conflict prevention: “long, quiet process of sustainable human development...” – UN must play a more active role in development via it’s own agencies and World Bank and International Monetary Fund 9 10 A comprehensive strategy JIU report very controversial • Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) in 1997: • Greatly expanded the UN mandate and authority – “Peace-building…is a broad-based approach to crisis prevention and resolution [that] should comprise integrated and coordinate actions aimed at addressing any combination of political, military, humanitarian, human rights, environmental, economic, social, cultural, and demographic factors so as to ensure that conflict is prevented or resolved…” 11 © 2010 Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved – Resisted by the U.S., China, and Russia • Threats to national sovereignty and power – Conspiracy theories emerged • black helicopters and the NRA – Question of funding and resources • Who would enforce sanctions? • Which countries would contribute military forces? • Show me the money! 12 2 Prof. Minh A. Luong <> United Nations Peacekeeping Briefing INTL1280: Global Security After the Cold War Brown University “Root causes” theory is quite controversial Barriers to UN effectiveness • Dominant development theory of the 1960s and 70s – Spurred by the post-WWII decolonization movement which peaked in the late 1960s to early 1970s • Poor resources – Financial – Force capacity • Lack of analytic capability • UN turf battles • Developed world poured hundreds of billions of dollars into developing regions, hoping to increase infrastructure, economic development, standards of living, stability and quality of life • Results? – Department of Political Affairs not familiar with development issues – UN Development Group (UNDG) lacks power and resources • A question of “political will” 13 Which nations contribute troops? Source: UN Peacekeeping Website, 2010 14 Which nations contribute funds? 15 Increased UN intervention Source: UN Peacekeeping Website, 2010 16 Current UN Peace Missions • The post-Cold War era witnessed a sharp increase in UN-sanctioned interventions – Transition from keeping peace between states to keeping peace within states/regions – Phenomenon of “failed states” – Increased willingness of the Council to invoke Chapter VII of the UN Charter to intervene to “respond to threats to international peace and security” 17 © 2010 Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved Source: UN Peacekeeping Website, 2010 18 3 Prof. Minh A. Luong <> United Nations Peacekeeping Briefing INTL1280: Global Security After the Cold War Brown University Adding to the UN mission Criticism of peacekeepers • Traditional peacekeeping missions continued • Lack of responsiveness • Corruption – Iraq and Kuwait – Ethiopia and Eritrea – Black market activities – Bribery • “Second generation” peacekeeping efforts as a response to genocide and civil conflicts – Host state consent was partial or absent – Violence different than warring factions – Cease-fires were sporadic or of short duration • Sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) – Prevention – Enforcement – Remediation • Conduct and discipline units at UN HQ 19 20 More female peacekeepers Conclusions • Greater need for women peacekeepers • UN peacekeeping missions can be successful if: – interview victims of sexual and gender-based violence – work in women’s prisons – assist female ex-combatants in demobilizing and reintegrating into civilian life – mentor female cadets at police academies • 30% of civilian peacekeepers are female • 1st all-female unit, a police unit from India, was deployed in 2007 21 – They are backed up by sufficient resources – Security Council issues a strong and lasting mandate – Rules of Engagement (RoE) give local field commanders sufficient authority to prevent violence and act in self-defense – Properly matched forces are selected for the mission 22 The Future of UN Peacekeeping Key resources • UN Secretary General has established a new commission on UN peacekeeping • Peacekeeping will be dependent on: • UN Peacekeeping website: – Security Council mandate – No veto by the major powers – Country or countries willing to provide troops – Sufficient resources and material – Political will to complete the mission – • UN Peacekeeping factsheet: – factsheet.pdf • 2009 UN peace operations in review – s/yir/yir2009.pdf 23 © 2010 Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 24 4 Prof. Minh A. Luong <> United Nations Peacekeeping Briefing INTL1280: Global Security After the Cold War Brown University Questions? 25 © 2010 Minh A. Luong, All Rights Reserved 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/17/2010 for the course INTL 0990 taught by Professor Li during the Spring '10 term at Brown.

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