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ISS_210_Final_Review[1] (Autosaved)

ISS_210_Final_Review[1] (Autosaved) - ISS 210 Review...

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ISS 210 Review Cumulative Notes Cultural Evolution - Is an argument that human culture changes gradually throughout time as a result of a number of cultural processes. Arguments By Authority - Arguments were solved by going to an authoritative source (bible). Enlightenment - Enlightenment thinkers believed that superiority should be decided through reason and imperial observation. John Locke - Believed people were a product of their environment and that they started out as “tabular rossa” or “blank slate” (NOT BIOLOGICAL). Ranking of Societies - Societies were ranked based on their level of rationality. Priests, kings etc. were viewed as the most rational individuals. Cultural Evolution as Justification for Colonialism - The people with the idea of colonization felt they were doing the natives a favor by bringing them intelligence and other western products. Racial Mode of Cultural Evolution - People who were not white or from European descent were considered “inferior” in aspects of rationality and logic. Non-Europeans were considered “biologically inferior.” Ethnocentrism - If one society is not like your own cultural values it may seem irrational or childish/stupid. Freud - Thought that if we could understand individuals then we would understand their society. Also had ideas of id, ego, superego, and developmental stages. Everyone has same psychological structure. Id - Before being socialized, driven by instinct, wants pleasure all of the time, knows no boundaries, and irrational. Ego - The self you present to the public, dominated by the reality principle. Has control over id and superego. Ego balances the Superego and the ID. Superego - What society wants you to be, disregards natural thought, battles the id. Pleasure vs. Reality Principle - Causes one to be gratified for everything, stands in place with the ego and is opposed to the pleasure principle of the id. Oedipus Complex - As a boy child, you love your mother more than anything. You look at father as a rival and try to get rid of him, you later find that he has authority and you have fears of him cutting off your testicles (castration anxiety). Soon the child begins to identify with the father and realizes that you cannot ever be with mother. Australian Aborigines - Society separated into clans. Clans choose their own animal and believe that they have the same spirit of the animal. The clans are exogamous (marry people who are not in own clan),
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Durkheim - Created Structural-Functionalism (not focusing on individual but just society). He believes that society exists at a level beyond the individual. Society affects the individual; the individual is not affected by the society.
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