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applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

6 caveat emptor this entire chapter is a whole lot of

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Unformatted text preview: its 768 bits 1792 bits 2304 bits The birthday paradox is a standard statistics problem. How many people must be in a room for the chance to be greater than even that one of them shares your birthday? The answer is 253. Now, how many people must there be for the chance to be greater than even that at least two of them will share the same birthday? The answer is surprisingly low: 23. With only 23 people in the room, there are still 253 different pairs of people in the room. Finding someone with a specific birthday is analogous to the first attack; finding two people with the same random birthday is analogous to the second attack. The second attack is commonly known as a birthday attack. Previous Table of Contents Next Products | Contact Us | About Us | Privacy | Ad Info | Home Use of this site is subject to certain Terms & Conditions, Copyright © 1996-2000 EarthWeb Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of EarthWeb is prohibited. Read EarthWeb's privacy statement. To access the contents, click the chapter and section titles. Applied Cryptography, Second Edition: Protocols, Algorthms, and Source Code in C (cloth) Go! Keyword Brief Full Advanced Search Search Tips (Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) Author(s): Bruce Schneier ISBN: 0471128457 Publication Date: 01/01/96 Search this book: Go! Previous Table of Contents Next ----------- Assume that a one-way hash function is secure and the best way to attack it is by using brute force. It produces an m-bit output. Finding a message that hashes to a given hash value would require hashing 2m random messages. Finding two messages that hash to the same value would only require hashing 2m/2 random messages. A machine that hashes a million messages per second would take 600,000 years to find a second message that matched a given 64-bit hash. The same machine could find a pair of messages that hashed to the same value in about an hour. This means that if you are worried about a birt...
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