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applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

# Actually all the feedback polynomials listed in table

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Unformatted text preview: or medium without express written permission of EarthWeb is prohibited. Read EarthWeb's privacy statement. To access the contents, click the chapter and section titles. Applied Cryptography, Second Edition: Protocols, Algorthms, and Source Code in C (cloth) Go! Keyword Brief Full Advanced Search Search Tips (Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) Author(s): Bruce Schneier ISBN: 0471128457 Publication Date: 01/01/96 Search this book: Go! Previous Table of Contents Next ----------- In order for a particular LFSR to be a maximal-period LFSR, the polynomial formed from a tap sequence plus the constant 1 must be a primitive polynomial mod 2. The degree of the polynomial is the length of the shift register. A primitive polynomial of degree n is an irreducible polynomial that divides x2n-1 + 1, but not xd + 1 for any d that divides 2n - 1 (see Section 11.3). For the mathematical theory behind all this, consult [643,1649,1648]. Figure 16.3 4-bit LFSR. In general, there is no easy way to generate primitive polynomials mod 2 for a given degree. The easiest way is to choose a random polynomial and test whether it is primitive. This is complicated—something like testing random numbers for primality—but many mathematical software packages do this. See [970,971] for some methods. Table 16.2 lists some, but by no means all, primitive polynomials mod 2 of varying degrees [1583,643,1649,1648,1272,691]. For example, the listing (32, 7, 5, 3, 2, 1, 0) means that the following polynomial is primitive modulo 2: x32 + x7 + x5 + x3 + x2 + x + 1 It’s easy to turn this into a maximal-period LFSR. The first number is the length of the LFSR. The last number is always 0 and can be ignored. All the numbers, except the 0, specify the tap sequence, counting from the left of the shift register. That is, low degree terms in the polynomial correspond to taps near the left-hand side of the register. To continue the example, the listing (32, 7, 5, 3, 2, 1, 0) means that if you take a 32-bit shift register and generate the new bit by XORing the thirty-second, seventh, fifth, third, second, and first...
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