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Unformatted text preview: rcepts half of Alice’s message in step (3), he cannot decrypt it with his private key and re-encrypt it with Bob’s public key. He must invent a totally new message and send half of it to Bob. When he intercepts half of Bob’s message to Alice in step (4), he has the same problem. He cannot decrypt it with his private key and re-encrypt it with Alice’s public key. He has to invent a totally new message and send half of it to Alice. By the time he intercepts the second halves of the real messages in steps (5) and (6), it is too late for him to change the new messages he invented. The conversation between Alice and Bob will necessarily be completely different. Mallory could possibly get away with this scheme. If he knows Alice and Bob well enough to mimic both sides of a conversation between them, they might never realize that they are being duped. But surely this is much harder than sitting between the two of them, intercepting and reading their messages. Key Exchange with Digital Signatures
Implementing digital signatures during a session-key exchange protocol circumvents this man-in-the-middle attack as well. Trent signs both Alice’s and Bob’s public keys. The signed keys include a signed certification of ownership. When Alice and Bob receive the keys, they each verify Trent’s signature. Now they know that the public key belongs to that other person. The key exchange protocol can then proceed. Mallory has serious problems. He cannot impersonate either Alice or Bob because he doesn’t know either of their private keys. He cannot substitute his public key for either of theirs because, while he has one signed by Trent, it is signed as being Mallory’s. All he can do is listen to the encrypted traffic go back and forth or disrupt the lines of communication and prevent Alice and Bob from talking. This protocol uses Trent, but the risk of compromising the KDC is less than the first protocol. If Mallory compromises Trent (breaks into the KDC), all he gets is Trent’s private key. This key enabl...
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2010 for the course MATH CS 301 taught by Professor Aliulger during the Fall '10 term at Koç University.
- Fall '10